1. Epigenetics
    PI3K/Akt/mTOR
    Autophagy
  2. AMPK
    Autophagy

Metformin hydrochloride (Synonyms: 1,1-Dimethylbiguanide hydrochloride)

Cat. No.: HY-17471A Purity: 99.08%
Handling Instructions

Metformin (hydrochloride) is a first-line drug for the treatment of type 2 diabetes and there is increasing evidence of a potential efficacy of this agent as an anti-cancer drug.

For research use only. We do not sell to patients.
Metformin hydrochloride Chemical Structure

Metformin hydrochloride Chemical Structure

CAS No. : 1115-70-4

Size Price Stock Quantity
Free Sample (0.5-1 mg)   Apply now  
10 mM * 1 mL in Water USD 66 In-stock
10 g USD 60 In-stock
50 g USD 144 In-stock
> 100 g   Get quote  

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Customer Review

    Metformin hydrochloride purchased from MCE. Usage Cited in: Mol Neurobiol. 2016 May 11.

    Met attenuates apoptosis caused by traumatic spinal cord injury in rat. a, b Representative western blots and quantification data of cleaved caspase 3 and β-actin in each group rats. c, d Representative western blots and quantification data of Bax, Bcl-2, and β-actin in each group rats.

    Metformin hydrochloride purchased from MCE. Usage Cited in: Front Pharmacol. 2016 Oct 20;7:390.

    Metformin, an AMPK agonist, counteracts the effect of Piperine on suppressing ATP-induced AMPK activation and inflammatory mediator release. J774A.1 cells are pre-treated with 80 μM Piperine and BMDMs are pre-treated with 160 μM Piperine for 4 h. Without being washed out of Piperine, these cells are primed with LPS (500 ng/mL) for 4 h. Next, the cells are treated with Metformin (1 mM) for 1 h (in the absence of Piperine and LPS). Finally, in the presence of Metformin, the BMDMs are stimulated wi

    Metformin hydrochloride purchased from MCE. Usage Cited in: Cell Physiol Biochem. 2017 Nov 30;44(4):1381-1395.

    U87 cells are treated with Met alone or in the presence of isogambogenic acid for 24 h. The expression levels of phosphorylated AMPK, mTOR and 4E-BP1 are assessed by western blotting, with total AMPK, mTOR and 4E-BP1 used as the internal controls.
    • Biological Activity

    • Protocol

    • Technical Information

    • Purity & Documentation

    • References

    Description

    Metformin (hydrochloride) is a first-line drug for the treatment of type 2 diabetes and there is increasing evidence of a potential efficacy of this agent as an anti-cancer drug.

    In Vitro

    Metformin inhibits proliferation of ESCs in a concentration-dependent manner. The IC50 is 2.45 mM for A-ESCs and 7.87 mM for N-ESCs. Metformin shows pronounced effects on activation of AMPK signaling in A-ESCs from secretory phase than in cells from proliferative phase[3]. Metformin (0-500 μM) decreases glycogen synthesis in a dose-dependent manner with an IC50 value of 196.5 μM in cultured rat hepatocytes[4]. Metformin shows cell viability and cytotoxic effects on PC-3 cells with IC50 of 5 mM[5].

    In Vivo

    Metformin (100 mg/kg, p.o.) alone, and metformin (25, 50, 100 mg/kg) with isoproterenol groups attenuates myocyte necrosis through histopathological analysis[1]. Metformin (> 900 mg/kg/day, p.o.) results in moribundity/mortality and clinical signs of toxicity in Crl:CD(SD) rats[2].

    Clinical Trial
    References
    Preparing Stock Solutions
    Concentration Volume Mass 1 mg 5 mg 10 mg
    1 mM 6.0379 mL 30.1896 mL 60.3792 mL
    5 mM 1.2076 mL 6.0379 mL 12.0758 mL
    10 mM 0.6038 mL 3.0190 mL 6.0379 mL
    Please refer to the solubility information to select the appropriate solvent.
    Cell Assay
    [3]

    Metformin is dissolved in double-distilled water at a stock concentration of 10 mM and stored at 4°C. 

    ESCs are plated in 96-well plates at a concentration of 1×103cells/well. After attachment, cells are treated with different doses of metformin/compound C for 0 min, 15 min, 1 h, and 24 h. MTT assays are performed as described previously. In brief, MTT (5 mg/mL) is added to the 96-well plates at a volume of 10 μL/well, and the plates are incubated for 4 h. The MTT reaction is terminated by removal of the culture medium containing MTT, and 100 μL DMSO per well are added and incubated at RT on a shaker for 10 min to ensure that the crystals had dissolved sufficiently. Absorbance values are measured at 595 nm. Cell proliferation (percentage of control) is calculated as follows: absorbance (experimental group)/absorbance (control group). Cell proliferation inhibition (percentage of control) is calculated as follows: 100%−cell proliferation (percentage of control). Each experiment is performed in duplicate and repeated six times to assess result consistency. MCE has not independently confirmed the accuracy of these methods. They are for reference only.

    Animal Administration
    [1]

    Metformin (hydrochloride) is dissolved in physiological saline.

    The animals are randomized into six groups consisting of six rats each. Rats in group 1 (control) receives a subcutaneous injection of physiological saline (0.5 mL) and are left untreated for the entire experimental period. Rats in group 2 receives an oral administration of metformin (100 mg/kg; twice daily) for 2 days and are subcutaneously injected with saline at an interval of 24 h for 2 consecutive days. Rats in group 3 (MI control) receives an oral administration of saline (twice daily) for 2 days and are sc injected with isoproterenol (100 mg/kg) daily for 2 consecutive days at an interval of 24 h. Rats in groups 4 to 6 are treated with metformin at 25, 50, and 100 mg/kg. Metformin is dissolved in saline and is gavaged at a volume of 0.25-0.5 mL twice a day at an interval of 12 h, started immediately before isoproterenol injection. MCE has not independently confirmed the accuracy of these methods. They are for reference only.

    References
    Molecular Weight

    165.62

    Formula

    C₄H₁₂ClN₅

    CAS No.

    1115-70-4

    SMILES

    NC(NC(N(C)C)=N)=N.Cl

    Storage
    Powder -20°C 3 years
      4°C 2 years
    In solvent -80°C 6 months
      -20°C 1 month
    Shipping

    Room temperature in continental US; may vary elsewhere

    Solvent & Solubility

    H2O: ≥ 32 mg/mL; DMSO: ≥ 1.7 mg/mL

    Metformin hydrochloride is prepared in 0.5% methylcellulose[6].
    Metformin hydrochloride is diluted with normal saline, to achieve a final metformin concentration of 20 mg/mL[7].

    * "<1 mg/mL" means slightly soluble or insoluble. "≥" means soluble, but saturation unknown.

    References

    Purity: 99.08%

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    Product Name:
    Metformin hydrochloride
    Cat. No.:
    HY-17471A
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