1. Epigenetics
    PI3K/Akt/mTOR
    Autophagy
  2. AMPK
    Autophagy
    Mitophagy

Metformin hydrochloride (Synonyms: 1,1-Dimethylbiguanide hydrochloride)

Cat. No.: HY-17471A Purity: 99.98%
Handling Instructions

Metformin (hydrochloride) is a first-line drug for the treatment of type 2 diabetes and there is increasing evidence of a potential efficacy of this agent as an anti-cancer drug.

For research use only. We do not sell to patients.

Metformin hydrochloride Chemical Structure

Metformin hydrochloride Chemical Structure

CAS No. : 1115-70-4

Size Price Stock Quantity
Free Sample (0.5-1 mg)   Apply now  
10 mM * 1 mL in Water USD 66 In-stock
Stock in the United States
Estimated Time of Arrival: December 31
10 g USD 60 In-stock
Stock in Sweden
Estimated Time of Arrival: December 31
50 g USD 144 In-stock
Stock in Sweden
Estimated Time of Arrival: December 31
> 100 g   Get quote  

* Please select Quantity before adding items.

Customer Review

    Metformin hydrochloride purchased from MCE. Usage Cited in: Mol Neurobiol. 2016 May 11.

    Met attenuates apoptosis caused by traumatic spinal cord injury in rat. a, b Representative western blots and quantification data of cleaved caspase 3 and β-actin in each group rats. c, d Representative western blots and quantification data of Bax, Bcl-2, and β-actin in each group rats.

    Metformin hydrochloride purchased from MCE. Usage Cited in: Front Pharmacol. 2016 Oct 20;7:390.

    Metformin, an AMPK agonist, counteracts the effect of Piperine on suppressing ATP-induced AMPK activation and inflammatory mediator release. J774A.1 cells are pre-treated with 80 μM Piperine and BMDMs are pre-treated with 160 μM Piperine for 4 h. Without being washed out of Piperine, these cells are primed with LPS (500 ng/mL) for 4 h. Next, the cells are treated with Metformin (1 mM) for 1 h (in the absence of Piperine and LPS). Finally, in the presence of Metformin, the BMDMs are stimulated wi

    Metformin hydrochloride purchased from MCE. Usage Cited in: Mol Cell Proteomics. 2017 Jul;16(7):1324-1334.

    To further validate the MS quantification results, Western blot analysis is carried out using an anti-H3K36 dimethylation antibody. Consistent with the mass spectrometric data, H3K36 dimethylation was elevated in DIO mouse livers, whereas Metformin treatment can significantly decrease histone H3K36 dimethylation in DIO mice to a level close to that of the chow-fed control mice.

    Metformin hydrochloride purchased from MCE. Usage Cited in: Biochem Pharmacol. 2017 Aug 15;138:49-60.

    Dose-dependent effects of Cantharidin on AMPK-related signaling in three HCC cell lines. The phosphorylation of AMPK is markedly upregulated, and so is its downstream effector phospho-ULK1, whereas PP5 expression is not affected after Cantharidin treatment.

    Metformin hydrochloride purchased from MCE. Usage Cited in: Biochem Pharmacol. 2017 Aug 15;138:49-60.

    Blockade of AMPK signals by AMPK α2 siRNA or AMPK inhibitor (Dorsomorphin; 2.5 μM, pretreatment 2 hours) treatment counteracts the apoptotic effects of Cantharidin at 2.5 μM. Data are representative of at least two independent experiments. Blocking AMPK signaling by knockdown of AMPK or Dorsomorphin (AMPK kinase inhibitor) treatment markedly reverses the apoptotic effect of Cantharidin, indicating that AMPK activation is required for the anti-HCC activity of Cantharidin.

    Metformin hydrochloride purchased from MCE. Usage Cited in: Biochem Pharmacol. 2017 Aug 15;138:49-60.

    PP5 overexpression suppresses AMPK-Thr172 phosphorylation induced by AMPK activators, AICAR and metformin. Hep3B cells are transfected with indicated plasmids and treated with AICAR (2 mM; 3 h) or Metformin (3 mM; 16 h) to simulate AMPK phosphorylation.

    Metformin hydrochloride purchased from MCE. Usage Cited in: Mol Oncol. 2017 Aug;11(8):1035-1049.

    Effects of Palbociclib on CDK4/6-Rb pathway. HCC cells are treated with different doses of Palbociclib for 24 h, and then, the cells are subjected to western blot analysis.

    Metformin hydrochloride purchased from MCE. Usage Cited in: Mol Oncol. 2017 Aug;11(8):1035-1049.

    Inhibition of AMPK reverses Palbociclib-induced autophagy and apoptosis. Hep3B cells are incubated with AMPK inhibitor (Compound C, 2.5 μM) for 4 h and then treated with Palbociclib for 24 h. Apoptotic cells are determined by flow cytometry.

    Metformin hydrochloride purchased from MCE. Usage Cited in: Mol Oncol. 2017 Aug;11(8):1035-1049.

    Effects of CDK4/6 inhibitors on AMPK phosphorylation and apoptosis-related signals. After 24 h of drug treatment, the cells are subjected to western blot analysis. AMPK phosphorylation level is quantified by the ratio of band intensities of phospho-AMPKα vs. AMPKα.

    Metformin hydrochloride purchased from MCE. Usage Cited in: Mol Oncol. 2017 Aug;11(8):1035-1049.

    Co-treatment of Metformin and Ribociclib induces cell death in Hep3B cells. Cells are exposed to Ribociclib at 25 μM and/or Metformin at 10 mM for 72 h.

    Metformin hydrochloride purchased from MCE. Usage Cited in: J Cell Mol Med. 2017 Dec;21(12):3322-3336.

    Metformin prevents the loss of tight junction (TJ) proteins after SCI. Representative Western blots and quantification data of Occludin, Claudin-5, ZO-1 and β-actin at 3 day after injury.

    Metformin hydrochloride purchased from MCE. Usage Cited in: Cell Physiol Biochem. 2017 Nov 30;44(4):1381-1395.

    U87 cells are treated with Met alone or in the presence of isogambogenic acid for 24 h. The expression levels of phosphorylated AMPK, mTOR and 4E-BP1 are assessed by western blotting, with total AMPK, mTOR and 4E-BP1 used as the internal controls.

    Metformin hydrochloride purchased from MCE. Usage Cited in: Endocrinology. 2018 May 1;159(5):2008-2021.

    Male C57BL/6 mice are intragastrically treated with Metformin or placebo at 3 mg/kg/day for 10 weeks in the presence of HFD after 10-week-HFD feeding and then sacrificed for sample collection. Western blot analysis of AMPKα1, AMPK, p-AMPK, SREBP1 and FAS.

    Metformin hydrochloride purchased from MCE. Usage Cited in: Endocrinology. 2018 May 1;159(5):2008-2021.

    Male C57BL/6 mice are intragastrically treated with Atorvastatin (0.1 mg/kg/day) and placebo for 10 weeks in the presence of HFD after 10-week-HFD feeding and then sacrificed for sample collection. H&E and oil red O staining of frozen liver sections.

    Metformin hydrochloride purchased from MCE. Usage Cited in: Endocrinology. 2018 May 1;159(5):2008-2021.

    Male C57BL/6 mice are intragastrically treated with vitamin E (100 mg/kg/day) and placebo for 10 weeks in the presence of HFD after 10-week-HFD feeding and then sacrificed for sample collection. H&E and oil red O staining of frozen liver sections.
    • Biological Activity

    • Protocol

    • Technical Information

    • Purity & Documentation

    • References

    Description

    Metformin (hydrochloride) is a first-line drug for the treatment of type 2 diabetes and there is increasing evidence of a potential efficacy of this agent as an anti-cancer drug.

    IC50 & Target[3]

    AMPK

     

    Autophagy

     

    Mitophagy

     

    In Vitro

    Metformin inhibits proliferation of ESCs in a concentration-dependent manner. The IC50 is 2.45 mM for A-ESCs and 7.87 mM for N-ESCs. Metformin shows pronounced effects on activation of AMPK signaling in A-ESCs from secretory phase than in cells from proliferative phase[3]. Metformin (0-500 μM) decreases glycogen synthesis in a dose-dependent manner with an IC50 value of 196.5 μM in cultured rat hepatocytes[4]. Metformin shows cell viability and cytotoxic effects on PC-3 cells with IC50 of 5 mM[5].

    In Vivo

    Metformin (100 mg/kg, p.o.) alone, and metformin (25, 50, 100 mg/kg) with isoproterenol groups attenuates myocyte necrosis through histopathological analysis[1]. Metformin (> 900 mg/kg/day, p.o.) results in moribundity/mortality and clinical signs of toxicity in Crl:CD(SD) rats[2].

    Clinical Trial
    Solvent & Solubility
    In Vitro: 

    DMSO : ≥ 1.7 mg/mL (10.26 mM)

    H2O : ≥ 32 mg/mL (193.21 mM)

    *"≥" means soluble, but saturation unknown.

    Preparing
    Stock Solutions
    Concentration Solvent Mass 1 mg 5 mg 10 mg
    1 mM 6.0379 mL 30.1896 mL 60.3792 mL
    5 mM 1.2076 mL 6.0379 mL 12.0758 mL
    10 mM 0.6038 mL 3.0190 mL 6.0379 mL
    *Please refer to the solubility information to select the appropriate solvent.
    In Vivo:
    • 1.

      Metformin hydrochloride is prepared in 0.5% methylcellulose[6].

       
    • 2.

      Metformin hydrochloride is diluted with normal saline, to achieve a final metformin concentration of 20 mg/mL[7].

       
    References
    Cell Assay
    [3]

    ESCs are plated in 96-well plates at a concentration of 1×103cells/well. After attachment, cells are treated with different doses of metformin/compound C for 0 min, 15 min, 1 h, and 24 h. MTT assays are performed as described previously. In brief, MTT (5 mg/mL) is added to the 96-well plates at a volume of 10 μL/well, and the plates are incubated for 4 h. The MTT reaction is terminated by removal of the culture medium containing MTT, and 100 μL DMSO per well are added and incubated at RT on a shaker for 10 min to ensure that the crystals had dissolved sufficiently. Absorbance values are measured at 595 nm. Cell proliferation (percentage of control) is calculated as follows: absorbance (experimental group)/absorbance (control group). Cell proliferation inhibition (percentage of control) is calculated as follows: 100%−cell proliferation (percentage of control). Each experiment is performed in duplicate and repeated six times to assess result consistency.

    MCE has not independently confirmed the accuracy of these methods. They are for reference only.

    Animal Administration
    [1]

    The animals are randomized into six groups consisting of six rats each. Rats in group 1 (control) receives a subcutaneous injection of physiological saline (0.5 mL) and are left untreated for the entire experimental period. Rats in group 2 receives an oral administration of metformin (100 mg/kg; twice daily) for 2 days and are subcutaneously injected with saline at an interval of 24 h for 2 consecutive days. Rats in group 3 (MI control) receives an oral administration of saline (twice daily) for 2 days and are sc injected with isoproterenol (100 mg/kg) daily for 2 consecutive days at an interval of 24 h. Rats in groups 4 to 6 are treated with metformin at 25, 50, and 100 mg/kg. Metformin is dissolved in saline and is gavaged at a volume of 0.25-0.5 mL twice a day at an interval of 12 h, started immediately before isoproterenol injection.

    MCE has not independently confirmed the accuracy of these methods. They are for reference only.

    References
    Molecular Weight

    165.62

    Formula

    C₄H₁₂ClN₅

    CAS No.

    1115-70-4

    SMILES

    NC(NC(N(C)C)=N)=N.Cl

    Storage
    Powder -20°C 3 years
      4°C 2 years
    In solvent -80°C 6 months
      -20°C 1 month
    Shipping

    Room temperature in continental US; may vary elsewhere

    Purity: 99.98%

    • Molarity Calculator

    • Dilution Calculator

    The molarity calculator equation

    Mass (g) = Concentration (mol/L) × Volume (L) × Molecular Weight (g/mol)

    Mass   Concentration   Volume   Molecular Weight *
    = × ×

    The dilution calculator equation

    Concentration (start) × Volume (start) = Concentration (final) × Volume (final)

    This equation is commonly abbreviated as: C1V1 = C2V2

    Concentration (start) × Volume (start) = Concentration (final) × Volume (final)
    × = ×
    C1   V1   C2   V2

    Inquiry Online

    Your information is safe with us. * Required Fields.

    Product name

     

    Salutation

    Applicant name *

     

    Email address *

    Phone number *

     

    Organization name *

    Country or Region *

     

    Requested quantity *

    Remarks

    Bulk Inquiry

    Inquiry Information

    Product Name:
    Metformin hydrochloride
    Cat. No.:
    HY-17471A
    Quantity:

    Metformin hydrochloride

    Cat. No.: HY-17471A