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  2. PACAP (1-38), human, ovine, rat

PACAP (1-38), human, ovine, rat (Synonyms: Pituitary Adenylate Cyclase Activating Polypeptide 38)

Cat. No.: HY-P0221
Handling Instructions

PACAP (1-38), human, ovine, rat is a neuropeptide with 38 amino acid residues. PACAP (1-38) binds to PACAP type I receptor, PACAP type II receptor VIP1, and PACAP type II receptor VIP2 with IC50s of 4 nM, 2 nM, and 1 nM, respectively.

For research use only. We do not sell to patients.

Custom Peptide Synthesis

PACAP (1-38), human, ovine, rat Chemical Structure

PACAP (1-38), human, ovine, rat Chemical Structure

CAS No. : 137061-48-4

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Other Forms of PACAP (1-38), human, ovine, rat:

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Description

PACAP (1-38), human, ovine, rat is a neuropeptide with 38 amino acid residues. PACAP (1-38) binds to PACAP type I receptor, PACAP type II receptor VIP1, and PACAP type II receptor VIP2 with IC50s of 4 nM, 2 nM, and 1 nM, respectively.

IC50 & Target

IC50: 4 nM (PACAP type I receptor), 2 nM (PACAP type II receptor VIP1), and 1 nM (PACAP type II receptor VIP2)[1]

In Vitro

PACAP (1-38), human, ovine, rat is a fragment of pituitary adenylate cyclase activating polypeptide[1]. PACAP (1-38) shows high affinity for PACAP specific (PAC1) receptor in membranes from various tissues including the endocrine pancreas[2]. In vitro, PACAP (1-38) relaxes guinea-pig and rabbit tracheal smooth muscle precontracted by histamine and by acetylcholine. PACAP (1-38) also increases adenosine 3':5'-cyclic monophosphate (cyclic AMP) in tracheal smooth muscle, providing a possible mechanism for the relaxant effect of PACAP (1-38)[3].

In Vivo

PACAP (1-38) alone in sham animals does not result in changes in any of the retinal layers. PACAP (1-38) dissolved in solutio ophthalmica cum benzalkonio leads to significant protection in the retina in bilateral common carotid artery occlusion (BCCAO)-lesioned retinas; retinas treated with PACAP (1-38) eye drops have preserved structure compared to control retinas. OLM-ILM (outer limiting membrane-inner limiting membrane) distance is reduced by 49.7% (p<0.001) in BCCAO retinas compared to sham controls, but it is only 40.6% (p<0.001) in the eyes treated with PACAP (1-38) eye drops. A protection to a similar degree is found in the inner nuclear layer (INL) (BCCAO: 38.5%, PACAP (1-38): 30.5%; p<0.001), and inner plexiform layer (IPL) (BCCAO: 64.8%, PACAP (1-38): 38.2%; p<0.05), while no statistically significant attenuation of the damage is observed in the outer nuclear layer (ONL) (BCCAO: 36.5%, PACAP (1-38): 37.7%) or outer plexiform layer (OPL) (BCCAO: 53.0%, PACAP (1-38): 48.2%). The number of cells in the ganglion cell layer (GCL) is significantly decreased after BCCAO by 52.4% (p<0.05) and is significantly ameliorated by PACAP (1-38) eye drops (decreased by 25.9%; p<0.05)[4].

Storage

Please store the product under the recommended conditions in the Certificate of Analysis.

Solvent & Solubility
In Vitro: 

H2O

Peptide Solubility and Storage Guidelines:

1.  Calculate the length of the peptide.

2.  Calculate the overall charge of the entire peptide according to the following table:

  Contents Assign value
Acidic amino acid Asp (D), Glu (E), and the C-terminal -COOH. -1
Basic amino acid Arg (R), Lys (K), His (H), and the N-terminal -NH2 +1
Neutral amino acid Gly (G), Ala (A), Leu (L), Ile (I), Val (V), Cys (C), Met (M), Thr (T), Ser (S), Phe (F), Tyr (Y), Trp (W), Pro (P), Asn (N), Gln (Q) 0

3.  Recommended solution:

Overall charge of peptide Details
Negative (<0) 1.  Try to dissolve the peptide in water first.
2.  If water fails, add NH4OH (<50 μL).
3.  If the peptide still does not dissolve, add DMSO (50-100 μL) to solubilize the peptide.
Positive (>0) 1.  Try to dissolve the peptide in water first.
2.  If water fails, try dissolving the peptide in a 10%-30% acetic acid solution.
3.  If the peptide still does not dissolve, try dissolving the peptide in a small amount of DMSO.
Zero (=0) 1.  Try to dissolve the peptide in organic solvent (acetonitrile, methanol, etc.) first.
2.  For very hydrophobic peptides, try dissolving the peptide in a small amount of DMSO, and then dilute the solution with water to the desired concentration.
References
Animal Administration
[4]

Rats[4]
Wistar rats (n=20:n=12 for histological analysis, n=8 for immunohistochemical analysis) weighing 250-300 are fed and watered ad libitum, under light/dark cycles of 12/12 h. Directly after the operation within 1 min, the right eye is treated with PACAP (1-38) eye drops (1 µg/drop). The vehicle used is benzalkonium-chloride in a concentration of 0.005%, as it is the most effective vehicle to achieve neuroprotection with PACAP1-27 eye drops. The left eye serves as a control, treated only with the vehicle. A group of animals serve as the sham-operated group that undergo anesthesia and all steps of the surgical procedure except ligation of the carotid arteries. Rats are treated twice a day with one drop, for 5 consecutive days[4].

MCE has not independently confirmed the accuracy of these methods. They are for reference only.

References
Molecular Weight

4534.26

Formula

C₂₀₃H₃₃₁N₆₃O₅₃S

CAS No.

137061-48-4

Sequence

His-Ser-Asp-Gly-Ile-Phe-Thr-Asp-Ser-Tyr-Ser-Arg-Tyr-Arg-Lys-Gln-Met-Ala-Val-Lys-Lys-Tyr-Leu-Ala-Ala-Val-Leu-Gly-Lys-Arg-Tyr-Lys-Gln-Arg-Val-Lys-Asn-Lys-NH2

Sequence Shortening

HSDGIFTDSYSRYRKQMAVKKYLAAVLGKRYKQRVKNK-NH2

Shipping

Room temperature in continental US; may vary elsewhere

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Product Name:
PACAP (1-38), human, ovine, rat
Cat. No.:
HY-P0221
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PACAP (1-38), human, ovine, rat

Cat. No.: HY-P0221