1. Metabolic Enzyme/Protease
    Cell Cycle/DNA Damage
  2. RAR/RXR

Retinoic acid (Synonyms: ATRA; Tretinoin; Vitamin A acid; all-trans-Retinoic acid)

Cat. No.: HY-14649 Purity: 98.36%
Data Sheet SDS Handling Instructions

Retinoic acid is a natural agonist of RAR/RXR nuclear receptors. Retinoic acid also bind to PPARβ/δ, with Kd of 17 nM.

For research use only. We do not sell to patients.
Retinoic acid Chemical Structure

Retinoic acid Chemical Structure

CAS No. : 302-79-4

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10 mM * 1 mL in DMSO $55 In-stock
100 mg $50 In-stock
500 mg $65 In-stock
1 g $80 In-stock
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Customer Review

  • Biological Activity

  • Protocol

  • Technical Information

  • Purity & Documentation

  • References


Retinoic acid is a natural agonist of RAR/RXR nuclear receptors. Retinoic acid also bind to PPARβ/δ, with Kd of 17 nM.

IC50 & Target

Kd: 17 nM (PPARβ/δ), 103 nM (PPARα), 178 (PPARγ)[2]

In Vitro

Retinoic acid (All-trans-retinoic acid, ATRA) is a highly potent derivative of vitamin A that is required for virtually all essential physiological processes and functions because of its involvement in transcriptional regulation of over 530 different genes. Retinoic acid exerts its actions by serving as an activating ligand of nuclear retinoic acid receptors (RARα-γ), which form heterodimers with retinoid X receptors (RXRα-γ)[1]. Retinoic acid (RA) bound to PPARα and PPARγ with a low affinity demonstrated by Kd values of 100-200 nM. In contrast, Retinoic acid associates with PPARβ/δ with a Kd of 17 nM, revealing both high affinity and isotype selectivity[2]. Undifferentiated P19 cells express the Retinoic acid (RA) receptors RARα, RARβ, RARγ, and PPARβ/δ, as well as the Retinoic acid -binding proteins CRABP-II and FABP5. Induction of differentiation by treatment of cells with Retinoic acid results in transient up-regulation of CRABP-II and down-regulation of FABP5 that are observed at the level of both the respective proteins and mRNAs. Following the initial decrease, the level of both FABP5 protein and mRNA increases to attain a 2-2.5-fold higher level in mature neurons as compared with undifferentiated P19 cells. Induction of differentiation does not markedly affect the levels of either RARα or PPARβ/δ. The level of RARγ mRNA decreases by about 5-fold by day 4 and remained low in mature neurons[3]. Retinoic acid (RA) is a morphogen derived from retinol (vitamin A) that plays important roles in cell growth, differentiation, and organogenesis. The Retinoic acid interacts with retinoic acid receptor (RAR) and retinoic acid X receptor (RXR) which then regulate the target gene expression[4].

Clinical Trial
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Preparing Stock Solutions
Concentration Volume Mass 1 mg 5 mg 10 mg
1 mM 3.3285 mL 16.6423 mL 33.2845 mL
5 mM 0.6657 mL 3.3285 mL 6.6569 mL
10 mM 0.3328 mL 1.6642 mL 3.3285 mL
Please refer to the solubility information to select the appropriate solvent.
Cell Assay

Retinoic acid is dissolved in DMSO and stored, and then diluted with appropriate medium before use[3].

P19 cell are induced to undergo neuronal differentiation according to established procedures. Briefly, cells are cultured on 1% agarose-coated 10 cm dishes at 3×10 5 cells/mL in α-minimal essential medium supplemented with 10% FBS. Differentiation is induced by addition of Retinoic acid (1 μM) and medium containing Retinoic acid replaced 2 days later. On day 4, cell aggregates are collected by centrifugation, separated to single cells by trypsin/EDTA treatment, replated onto poly-L-lysine-coated plates, and cultured in α-minimal essential medium supplemented with 10% FBS. On day 6, medium is replaced with neurobasal medium containing B27 supplement and 2 mM GlutaMAX. Medium is replaced every 2 days for an additional week[3]. MCE has not independently confirmed the accuracy of these methods. They are for reference only.

Molecular Weight






Powder -20°C 3 years
  4°C 2 years
In solvent -80°C 6 months
  -20°C 1 month

Room temperature in continental US; may vary elsewhere

Solvent & Solubility

10 mM in DMSO

* "<1 mg/mL" means slightly soluble or insoluble. "≥" means soluble, but saturation unknown.

Purity: 98.36%

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