1. Metabolic Enzyme/Protease
    Cell Cycle/DNA Damage
    NF-κB
  2. RAR/RXR
    PPAR

Retinoic acid (Synonyms: ATRA; Tretinoin; Vitamin A acid; all-trans-Retinoic acid)

Cat. No.: HY-14649 Purity: 98.52%
Data Sheet SDS Handling Instructions

Retinoic acid is a natural agonist of RAR/RXR nuclear receptors. Retinoic acid also bind to PPARβ/δ, with Kd of 17 nM.

For research use only. We do not sell to patients.
Retinoic acid Chemical Structure

Retinoic acid Chemical Structure

CAS No. : 302-79-4

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  • Biological Activity

  • Protocol

  • Technical Information

  • Purity & Documentation

  • References

Description

Retinoic acid is a natural agonist of RAR/RXR nuclear receptors. Retinoic acid also bind to PPARβ/δ, with Kd of 17 nM.

IC50 & Target

RAR/RXR[1]
Kd: 17 nM (PPARβ/δ), 103 nM (PPARα), 178 (PPARγ)[2]

In Vitro

Retinoic acid (All-trans-retinoic acid, ATRA) is a highly potent derivative of vitamin A that is required for virtually all essential physiological processes and functions because of its involvement in transcriptional regulation of over 530 different genes. Retinoic acid exerts its actions by serving as an activating ligand of nuclear retinoic acid receptors (RARα-γ), which form heterodimers with retinoid X receptors (RXRα-γ)[1]. Retinoic acid (RA) bound to PPARα and PPARγ with a low affinity demonstrated by Kd values of 100-200 nM. In contrast, Retinoic acid associates with PPARβ/δ with a Kd of 17 nM, revealing both high affinity and isotype selectivity[2]. Undifferentiated P19 cells express the Retinoic acid (RA) receptors RARα, RARβ, RARγ, and PPARβ/δ, as well as the Retinoic acid -binding proteins CRABP-II and FABP5. Induction of differentiation by treatment of cells with Retinoic acid results in transient up-regulation of CRABP-II and down-regulation of FABP5 that are observed at the level of both the respective proteins and mRNAs. Following the initial decrease, the level of both FABP5 protein and mRNA increases to attain a 2-2.5-fold higher level in mature neurons as compared with undifferentiated P19 cells. Induction of differentiation does not markedly affect the levels of either RARα or PPARβ/δ. The level of RARγ mRNA decreases by about 5-fold by day 4 and remained low in mature neurons[3]. Retinoic acid (RA) is a morphogen derived from retinol (vitamin A) that plays important roles in cell growth, differentiation, and organogenesis. The Retinoic acid interacts with retinoic acid receptor (RAR) and retinoic acid X receptor (RXR) which then regulate the target gene expression[4].

Clinical Trial
NCT Number Sponsor Condition Start Date Phase
NCT03200847 University of Colorado, Denver|Merck Sharp & Dohme Corp. Stage IV Melanoma|Stage III Melanoma|Advanced Melanoma August 2017 Phase 1|Phase 2
NCT01048086 University of Iowa|Molecular Insight Pharmaceuticals, Inc. Neuroblastoma|Neuroendocrine Tumor June 2009 Phase 2
NCT01891526 University Hospital, Gentofte, Copenhagen Hepatic Insufficiency December 2010
NCT01985477 M.D. Anderson Cancer Center|Celgene Corporation Myeloma December 2013 Phase 1
NCT00533169 M.D. Anderson Cancer Center|AstraZeneca Neuroblastoma September 2007 Phase 1
NCT02403778 University of Colorado, Denver Melanoma December 17, 2015 Phase 2
NCT02061384 University of Washington Male Infertility|Klinefelter's Syndrome|Y-chromosome Microdeletions August 2014 Phase 2
NCT01275274 University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill|National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases (NIDDK) Anti-Neutrophil Cytoplasmic Antibody-Associated Vasculitis January 2012 Phase 2
NCT00528437 New York University School of Medicine|Children's Hospitals and Clinics of Minnesota|Schneider Children's Hospital Brain Tumors October 2005 Phase 2
NCT02497833 Sun Yat-sen University Hypercholesterolemia November 2014 Early Phase 1
NCT01183429 Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center Neuroblastoma August 2010 Phase 2
NCT01456468 Yale University|Mayo Clinic Cholangitis, Sclerosing October 2011 Phase 1
NCT00002586 University of Colorado, Denver Drug Toxicity|Lung Cancer January 1993 Phase 2
NCT00001504 National Cancer Institute (NCI)|National Institutes of Health Clinical Center (CC) Breast Cancer|Breast Neoplasm May 1996 Phase 1
NCT01183884 Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center Neuroblastoma August 2010 Phase 2
NCT00136461 Dana-Farber Cancer Institute|Brigham and Women's Hospital Acute Myelogenous Leukemia|Myelodysplastic Syndrome May 1997 Phase 2
NCT01183416 Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center Neuroblastoma August 2010 Phase 2
NCT00001509 National Cancer Institute (NCI)|National Institutes of Health Clinical Center (CC) Nephroblastoma|Neuroblastoma July 1996 Phase 2
NCT01575691 M.D. Anderson Cancer Center|Celgene Corporation Myelodysplastic Syndrome|Acute Myelogenous Leukemia July 2005 Phase 1
NCT00001438 National Cancer Institute (NCI)|National Institutes of Health Clinical Center (CC) HIV Infections|Immunologic Deficiency Syndromes|Lymphoproliferative Disorders June 1995 Phase 2
NCT00892190 University of Pittsburgh Acute Myelogenous Leukemia|Myelodysplastic Syndrome April 2011 Phase 1
NCT00413166 M.D. Anderson Cancer Center Acute Promyelocytic Leukemia December 2006 Phase 2
NCT00326170 M.D. Anderson Cancer Center|Celgene Corporation Myelodysplastic Syndrome|Acute Myelogenous Leukemia July 2005 Phase 2
NCT00617409 H. Lee Moffitt Cancer Center and Research Institute Small Cell Lung Cancer October 2, 2007 Phase 2
NCT01667263 Peking University People's Hospital|Beijing Municipal Science & Technology Commission|Beijing Hospital|Qilu Hospital of Shandong University|Navy General Hospital, Beijing|Beijing Tongren Hospital Autoimmune Thrombocytopenia June 1, 2012 Phase 2
NCT01276730 James Graham Brown Cancer Center|University of Louisville Cervical Cancer October 2007 Phase 2
NCT00969722 United Therapeutics Primary Refractory Neuroblastoma August 2009 Phase 2
NCT00339196 Assistance Publique - Hôpitaux de Paris Acute Myelogenous Leukaemia (AML)|Myelodysplastic Syndrome (MDS) July 2006 Phase 2
NCT02842827 Imago BioSciences,Inc. Acute Myeloid Leukemia|Myelodysplastic Syndrome October 2016 Phase 1
NCT00151255 University of Ulm Acute Myeloid Leukemia June 2004 Phase 3
NCT01237808 University of Ulm|German Federal Ministry of Education and Research Acute Myeloid Leukemia (AML) March 2011 Phase 3
NCT00151242 University of Ulm Acute Myeloid Leukemia July 2004 Phase 2|Phase 3
NCT02717884 Ulrike Kohlweyer|University Hospital Freiburg Acute Myeloid Leukemia|Myelodysplastic Syndrome May 2015 Phase 1|Phase 2
NCT02751255 VU University Medical Center|EMC Rotterdam|UMC Utrecht|Vejle Hospital and University of Southern Denmark|Department of Medical Sciences, University of Torino Multiple Myeloma August 2016 Phase 1|Phase 2
NCT00000621 National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute (NHLBI) Emphysema|Lung Diseases|Lung Diseases, Obstructive|Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease September 1999 Phase 2
NCT01161550 Washington University School of Medicine Leukemia, Myeloid, Acute November 2010 Phase 1
NCT00062010 Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group|National Cancer Institute (NCI) Lung Cancer February 2004 Phase 2
NCT01064557 Gruppo Italiano Malattie EMatologiche dell'Adulto Leukemia October 1993
NCT00995332 University of Bergen Acute Myelogenous Leukemia September 2009 Phase 1|Phase 2
NCT00601796 H. Lee Moffitt Cancer Center and Research Institute|National Cancer Institute (NCI)|National Institutes of Health (NIH) Lung Cancer October 2006 Phase 2
NCT02899169 First Affiliated Hospital Xi'an Jiaotong University|Tang-Du Hospital Acute Promyelocytic Leukemia September 2016 Phase 3
NCT00175812 University of Bergen Acute Myelogenous Leukemia November 2004 Phase 1|Phase 2
NCT00135135 St. Jude Children's Research Hospital|AstraZeneca|National Institutes of Health (NIH) Neuroblastoma August 2005 Phase 2
NCT02641782 University of Cologne Neuroblastoma November 2015 Phase 2
NCT01064570 Gruppo Italiano Malattie EMatologiche dell'Adulto Acute Promyelocytic Leukemia May 2000 Phase 2
NCT03031249 Institute of Hematology & Blood Diseases Hospital AML February 8, 2017 Phase 1|Phase 2
NCT00808899 St. Jude Children's Research Hospital Neuroblastoma December 2008 Phase 2
NCT00482833 Gruppo Italiano Malattie EMatologiche dell'Adulto|Study Alliance Leukemia (SAL) Group Leukemia August 2007 Phase 3
NCT00609739 Masonic Cancer Center, University of Minnesota Leukemia June 1999 Phase 1|Phase 2
NCT01526603 Masonic Cancer Center, University of Minnesota Neuroblastoma March 28, 2012
NCT01448733 Zeichner, Joshua, M.D. Acne Vulgaris July 2011 Phase 4
NCT01406080 Galderma Brasil Ltda. Photoaging|Photodamage January 2013 Phase 3
NCT01349556 Johns Hopkins University Medication Reaction May 2011
NCT01820624 Paolo Caimi, MD|National Cancer Institute (NCI)|Case Comprehensive Cancer Center Adult Acute Megakaryoblastic Leukemia (M7)|Adult Acute Monoblastic Leukemia (M5a)|Adult Acute Monocytic Leukemia (M5b)|Adult Acute Myeloblastic Leukemia With Maturation (M2)|Adult Acute Myeloblastic Leukemia Without Maturation (M1)|Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With 11q23 (MLL) Abnormalities|Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With Del(5q)|Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With Inv(16)(p13;q22)|Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With t(16;16)(p13;q22)|Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With t(8;21)(q22;q22)|Adult Acute April 30, 2013 Phase 1
NCT01283464 Johns Hopkins University Photodamaged Skin|Wrinkles November 2010 Phase 2
NCT02249767 Spear Pharmaceuticals Acne November 2013 Phase 3
NCT00240513 Derm Research @ 888 Inc.|Stiefel, a GSK Company Acne Vulgaris August 2004 Phase 4
NCT01027793 Brazilan Center for Studies in Dermatology Stretch Marks|Striae|Treatment March 2009 Phase 4
NCT00007631 VA Office of Research and Development|Ortho Dermatologics Carcinoma, Basal Cell|Carcinoma, Squamous Cell|Skin Neoplasms March 1998 Phase 3
NCT00647556 Galderma Laboratories, L.P. Photoaging April 2008 Phase 3
NCT01404949 Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center|Northwestern University|New York Presbyterian Hospital|University of Southern California|Princess Margaret Hospital, Canada|National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute (NHLBI) Acute Promyelocytic Leukemia July 2011 Phase 2
NCT01422785 Zeichner, Joshua, M.D. Acne Vulgaris July 2011 Phase 4
NCT00717652 Azidus Brasil Melasma July 2008 Phase 2|Phase 3
NCT00621218 Coria Laboratories, Ltd. Rosacea February 2008 Phase 2
NCT02410980 University of California, Irvine|Unilever R&D|Beckman Laser Institute University of California Irvine Collagen Fibril Alteration August 2015 Early Phase 1
NCT00835198 Allergan Acne Vulgaris December 2008 Phase 4
NCT02278861 Universidade Federal de Goias|Conselho Nacional de Desenvolvimento Científico e Tecnológico|Theraskin|Germed Pharma Actinic Keratosis November 2011 Phase 2
NCT00823901 Massachusetts General Hospital|Medicis Pharmaceutical Corporation Rosacea February 2009 Phase 2|Phase 3
NCT00603772 Coria Laboratories, Ltd. Healthy January 2008 Phase 1
NCT01135069 Spear Pharmaceuticals Acne October 2009 Phase 3
NCT00005969 M.D. Anderson Cancer Center|National Cancer Institute (NCI) Lymphoma September 1999 Phase 2
NCT01915758 GlaxoSmithKline Acne Vulgaris November 21, 2008 Phase 1
NCT00382200 Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center|National Cancer Institute (NCI) Myelodysplastic Syndromes July 2006 Phase 1|Phase 2
NCT00939133 Dermatrials Research|Johnson & Johnson Acne July 2009 Phase 4
NCT02261779 Martin-Luther-Universität Halle-Wittenberg AML September 2014 Phase 1|Phase 2
NCT01047189 Wake Forest University|Medicis Pharmaceutical Corporation|Wake Forest University Health Sciences Acne Vulgaris March 2009 Phase 4
NCT01243450 Spear Pharmaceuticals Acne October 2009 Phase 3
NCT00002479 Northwestern University|National Cancer Institute (NCI) Lymphoma October 1991 Phase 2
NCT01111994 Callender Center for Clinical Research|Society Hill Dermatology Acne November 2009 Phase 4
NCT00919555 Phoenix Neurological Associates, LTD Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis June 2008 Phase 1|Phase 2
NCT01313728 Valeant Pharmaceuticals International, Inc. Acne Vulgaris December 2010 Phase 4
NCT00003601 Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group|National Cancer Institute (NCI) Melanoma (Skin) September 1998 Phase 2
NCT00604032 Coria Laboratories, Ltd. Healthy January 2008 Phase 1
NCT01257906 Actavis Mid-Atlantic LLC MILD TO SEVERE ACNE VULGARIS May 2010
NCT00528450 Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center|National Cancer Institute (NCI)|Cephalon Leukemia September 2007 Phase 2
NCT00006220 Washington University School of Medicine|National Cancer Institute (NCI) Leukemia|Lymphoma|Multiple Myeloma and Plasma Cell Neoplasm|Myelodysplastic Syndromes June 1999 Phase 1|Phase 2
NCT00975312 Pontificia Universidad Catolica de Chile|Galderma Laboratories, L.P. Lentigo August 2008 Phase 2
NCT00006239 Sidney Kimmel Comprehensive Cancer Center|National Cancer Institute (NCI) Leukemia|Myelodysplastic Syndromes|Myelodysplastic/Myeloproliferative Diseases December 2000 Phase 1
NCT00952523 Valeant Pharmaceuticals International, Inc. Acne Vulgaris July 2009 Phase 4
NCT00003934 National Cancer Institute (NCI) Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With t(15;17)(q22;q12)|Adult Acute Promyelocytic Leukemia (M3)|Childhood Acute Promyelocytic Leukemia (M3)|Untreated Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia|Untreated Childhood Acute Myeloid Leukemia and Other Myeloid Malignancies June 1999 Phase 3
NCT00842907 Federal University of São Paulo Photodamage|Photoaging May 2009 Phase 2
NCT00907257 Valeant Pharmaceuticals International, Inc. Acne Vulgaris February 2009 Phase 4
NCT00003598 University of Michigan Cancer Center|National Cancer Institute (NCI) Cervical Cancer|Precancerous/Nonmalignant Condition January 1999
NCT02339740 Children's Oncology Group|National Cancer Institute (NCI) Adult Acute Promyelocytic Leukemia With t(15;17)(q22;q12); PML-RARA|Childhood Acute Promyelocytic Leukemia With t(15;17)(q22;q12); PML-RARA|Untreated Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia|Untreated Childhood Myeloid Neoplasm June 2015 Phase 3
NCT01929278 Stiefel, a GSK Company|GlaxoSmithKline Acne Vulgaris December 8, 2008 Phase 1
NCT02620813 University of California, Davis Acne Vulgaris October 2015 Phase 4
NCT00003656 Weill Medical College of Cornell University Kidney Cancer January 1999 Phase 2
NCT00974480 Cosmetique Active International|Innovaderm Research Inc. Skin Aging September 2009
NCT00714714 Valeant Pharmaceuticals International, Inc. Acne Vulgaris January 2008 Phase 4
NCT00514293 Raghu Nandan, M.D., Inc|National Cancer Institute (NCI) Lung Cancer January 2007 Phase 2
NCT02273102 University of Miami Acute Myelogenous Leukemia|Myelodysplastic Syndromes|Leukemia March 2, 2015 Phase 1
NCT00472966 Galderma Laboratories, L.P. Melasma November 2006 Phase 4
NCT01149876 Massachusetts General Hospital Hyperpigmentation June 2010 Phase 4
NCT00492856 Southwest Oncology Group|National Cancer Institute (NCI) Leukemia June 2007 Phase 3
NCT01261923 University Hospital, Gentofte, Copenhagen Hepatic Insufficiency December 2010 Phase 1|Phase 2
NCT00919191 Valeant Pharmaceuticals International, Inc. Acne Vulgaris April 2009 Phase 4
NCT00005863 Medical Research Council|National Cancer Institute (NCI) Leukemia|Myelodysplastic Syndromes|Myelodysplastic/Myeloproliferative Neoplasms August 1998 Phase 3
NCT02180425 University of California, Davis Acne November 2013
NCT00138151 University of Medicine and Dentistry of New Jersey|National Cancer Institute (NCI)|Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey Cervical Cancer March 2001 Phase 2
NCT00003599 M.D. Anderson Cancer Center|National Cancer Institute (NCI) Lung Cancer Phase 3
NCT00689117 Stiefel, a GSK Company|GlaxoSmithKline Acne Vulgaris|Acne April 2008 Phase 3
NCT00669071 Galderma Laboratories, L.P. Melasma January 2008 Phase 4
NCT02704507 Carilion Clinic Acne June 2015
NCT00003564 M.D. Anderson Cancer Center|National Cancer Institute (NCI) Brain and Central Nervous System Tumors Phase 3
NCT00005825 Raghu Nandan, M.D., Inc|National Cancer Institute (NCI) Lung Cancer September 1998 Phase 2
NCT00469183 Galderma Laboratories, L.P. Melasma May 2006 Phase 4
NCT01206348 Medicis Global Service Corporation Acne September 2010 Phase 4
NCT00334789 National Cancer Institute (NCI) Adult Solid Neoplasm June 12, 2006 Phase 1
NCT01208454 National Cancer Institute (NCI) Localized Unresectable Neuroblastoma|Recurrent Neuroblastoma|Regional Neuroblastoma|Stage 4 Neuroblastoma|Stage 4S Neuroblastoma December 2010 Phase 1
NCT01592045 United Therapeutics Neuroblastoma August 2012 Phase 1|Phase 2
NCT00002701 European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer - EORTC|Gruppo Italiano Malattie EMatologiche dell'Adulto|National Cancer Institute (NCI) Leukemia October 1995 Phase 3
NCT02688140 Technische Universität Dresden|Gruppo Italiano Malattie EMatologiche dell'Adulto|Groupe Francophone des Myelodysplasies|Haemato Oncology Foundation for Adults in the Netherlands|Programa para el Tratamiento de Hemopatías Malignas|German Federal Ministry of Education and Research|Teva Pharmaceuticals Europe Acute Promyelocytic Leukemia June 2016 Phase 3
NCT00002506 Hoag Memorial Hospital Presbyterian|Cancer Biotherapy Research Group Cervical Cancer|Esophageal Cancer|Head and Neck Cancer|Lung Cancer|Non-melanomatous Skin Cancer|Penile Cancer August 1992 Phase 2
NCT00021359 Fox Chase Cancer Center|National Cancer Institute (NCI) Multiple Myeloma and Plasma Cell Neoplasm August 1999 Phase 2
NCT01103375 Wake Forest University Health Sciences|National Cancer Institute (NCI) Adult Anaplastic Astrocytoma|Adult Anaplastic Oligodendroglioma|Adult Diffuse Astrocytoma|Adult Giant Cell Glioblastoma|Adult Glioblastoma|Adult Gliosarcoma|Adult Mixed Glioma|Adult Oligodendroglioma|Recurrent Adult Brain Tumor May 2010 Phase 1
NCT00939965 Children's Cancer and Leukaemia Group|National Cancer Institute (NCI) Neuroblastoma February 2009
NCT00176527 University of Medicine and Dentistry of New Jersey|National Cancer Institute (NCI)|Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey Prostate Cancer November 2002 Phase 2
NCT00098891 National Cancer Institute (NCI) Adult Grade III Lymphomatoid Granulomatosis|Anaplastic Large Cell Lymphoma|Angioimmunoblastic T-cell Lymphoma|Extranodal Marginal Zone B-cell Lymphoma of Mucosa-associated Lymphoid Tissue|Intraocular Lymphoma|Nodal Marginal Zone B-cell Lymphoma|Primary Central Nervous System Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma|Recurrent Adult Burkitt Lymphoma|Recurrent Adult Diffuse Large Cell Lymphoma|Recurrent Adult Diffuse Mixed Cell Lymphoma|Recurrent Adult Diffuse Small Cleaved Cell Lymphoma|Recurrent Adult Grade III Lymp October 2004 Phase 1
NCT00005847 Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group|National Cancer Institute (NCI) Prostate Cancer January 2001 Phase 2
NCT00324740 National Cancer Institute (NCI) Recurrent Renal Cell Cancer|Stage III Renal Cell Cancer|Stage IV Renal Cell Cancer March 2006 Phase 1|Phase 2
NCT00025038 National Cancer Institute (NCI) Juvenile Myelomonocytic Leukemia June 2001 Phase 2
NCT00003619 Drexel University College of Medicine|National Cancer Institute (NCI) Chronic Myeloproliferative Disorders|Leukemia|Myelodysplastic Syndromes|Thrombocytopenia February 1998 Phase 1|Phase 2
NCT00003405 Rush University Medical Center|National Cancer Institute (NCI) Leukemia April 1998 Phase 2
NCT00217412 National Cancer Institute (NCI) Childhood Acute Promyelocytic Leukemia (M3)|Childhood Atypical Teratoid/Rhabdoid Tumor|Childhood Burkitt Lymphoma|Childhood Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia|Childhood Diffuse Large Cell Lymphoma|Childhood Immunoblastic Large Cell Lymphoma|Juvenile Myelomonocytic Leukemia|Recurrent Childhood Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia|Recurrent Childhood Acute Myeloid Leukemia|Recurrent Childhood Grade III Lymphomatoid Granulomatosis|Recurrent Childhood Large Cell Lymphoma|Recurrent Childhood Lymphoblastic Lymphoma August 2005 Phase 1
NCT00002737 European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer - EORTC Kidney Cancer March 1996 Phase 3
NCT01404130 University of Aberdeen Acne Vulgaris September 2008 Phase 4
NCT00038376 M.D. Anderson Cancer Center Lymphoma, T-Cell|Mycosis Fungoides|Hematologic Neoplasms May 1990 Phase 2
NCT00016159 Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center|National Cancer Institute (NCI) Leukemia November 2000 Phase 2
NCT03026907 University Medical Center Groningen Hand Eczema May 2016 Phase 3
NCT03076021 University of Washington|National Institute of General Medical Sciences (NIGMS) CYP2D6 Polymorphism July 26, 2016 Phase 4
NCT03026946 University Medical Center Groningen|ZonMw: The Netherlands Organisation for Health Research and Development Hand Eczema May 29, 2017 Phase 3
NCT00555399 M.D. Anderson Cancer Center|Merck Sharp & Dohme Corp. Glioblastoma Multiforme|Anaplastic Glioma November 2007 Phase 1|Phase 2
NCT00551460 Southwest Oncology Group|National Cancer Institute (NCI) Leukemia November 2007 Phase 2
NCT00866918 Children's Oncology Group|National Cancer Institute (NCI) Childhood Acute Promyelocytic Leukemia (M3)|Untreated Childhood Acute Myeloid Leukemia and Other Myeloid Malignancies March 2009 Phase 3
NCT00276601 Sidney Kimmel Comprehensive Cancer Center|National Cancer Institute (NCI) Leukemia October 2004 Phase 2
NCT01701479 St. Anna Kinderkrebsforschung|University Medicine Greifswald|St. Anna Children's Hospital, Vienna|Hospital Universitario La Fe|Istituto Giannina Gaslini|Gustave Roussy, Cancer Campus, Grand Paris|Schneider Children's Medical Center, Israel|Great Ormond Street Hospital for Children NHS Foundation Trust Neuroblastoma November 2010 Phase 1|Phase 2
NCT01538732 University of Zurich Lichen Planus (LP) March 2012 Phase 2
NCT01407679 University Hospital Muenster|Basilea Pharmaceutica International Ltd Lupus Erythematosus, Cutaneous August 2011 Phase 2
NCT01245140 Stiefel, a GSK Company|Basilea Pharmaceutica|GlaxoSmithKline Psoriasis April 2011 Phase 2
NCT00817063 Stiefel, a GSK Company|Basilea Pharmaceutica|GlaxoSmithKline Eczema January 2009 Phase 3
NCT00519675 Basilea Pharmaceutica Eczema May 2007 Phase 3
NCT00124436 Basilea Pharmaceutica Hand Dermatoses March 2005 Phase 3
NCT00017225 Gesellschaft fur Padiatrische Onkologie und Hamatologie - Germany|National Cancer Institute (NCI) Neuroblastoma May 1997 Phase 2
NCT00005823 Leukemia Research Fund|National Cancer Institute (NCI) Leukemia|Myelodysplastic Syndromes|Myelodysplastic/Myeloproliferative Neoplasms December 1998 Phase 3
NCT00002658 Medical Research Council|National Cancer Institute (NCI) Leukemia|Neutropenia January 1994 Phase 3
NCT01711554 National Cancer Institute (NCI) Recurrent Neuroblastoma|Stage 4 Neuroblastoma February 4, 2013 Phase 1
NCT00112502 M.D. Anderson Cancer Center|National Cancer Institute (NCI) Brain and Central Nervous System Tumors September 2005 Phase 2
NCT01231854 Technische Universität Dresden Atopic Dermatitis November 2010 Phase 4
NCT01041638 National Cancer Institute (NCI) Localized Resectable Neuroblastoma|Localized Unresectable Neuroblastoma|Regional Neuroblastoma|Stage 4 Neuroblastoma|Stage 4S Neuroblastoma December 2009 Phase 3
NCT00026312 National Cancer Institute (NCI) Localized Resectable Neuroblastoma|Localized Unresectable Neuroblastoma|Recurrent Neuroblastoma|Regional Neuroblastoma|Stage 4 Neuroblastoma|Stage 4S Neuroblastoma October 2001 Phase 3
NCT01857934 St. Jude Children's Research Hospital|Cookies for Kids' Cancer|CURE Childhood Cancer, Inc. Neuroblastoma July 5, 2013 Phase 2
NCT01020539 Columbia University Acute Myelogenous Leukemia|Myelodysplastic Syndrome|Juvenile Myelomonocytic Leukemia January 2005 Phase 1
NCT00867178 National Cancer Institute (NCI) Untreated Childhood Medulloblastoma|Untreated Childhood Pineoblastoma|Untreated Childhood Supratentorial Primitive Neuroectodermal Tumor February 25, 2009
NCT03126916 Children's Oncology Group|National Cancer Institute (NCI) Childhood Ganglioneuroblastoma|Childhood Neuroblastoma|NMYC Gene Amplification|Recurrent Neuroblastoma August 2017 Phase 3
NCT00567567 Children's Oncology Group|National Cancer Institute (NCI) Localized Resectable Neuroblastoma|Localized Unresectable Neuroblastoma|Recurrent Neuroblastoma|Regional Neuroblastoma|Stage 4 Neuroblastoma|Stage 4S Neuroblastoma November 2007 Phase 3
NCT00078988 Children's Oncology Group|National Cancer Institute (NCI) Brain Tumor|Central Nervous System Tumor October 2004 Phase 3
NCT00499616 Children's Oncology Group|National Cancer Institute (NCI) Neuroblastoma October 2007 Phase 3
NCT00004188 Children's Oncology Group|National Cancer Institute (NCI) Neuroblastoma February 2001 Phase 3
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References
Preparing Stock Solutions
Concentration Volume (DMSO) Mass 1 mg 5 mg 10 mg
1 mM 3.3285 mL 16.6423 mL 33.2845 mL
5 mM 0.6657 mL 3.3285 mL 6.6569 mL
10 mM 0.3328 mL 1.6642 mL 3.3285 mL
Cell Assay
[3]

Retinoic acid is dissolved in DMSO and stored, and then diluted with appropriate medium before use[3].

P19 cell are induced to undergo neuronal differentiation according to established procedures. Briefly, cells are cultured on 1% agarose-coated 10 cm dishes at 3×10 5 cells/mL in α-minimal essential medium supplemented with 10% FBS. Differentiation is induced by addition of Retinoic acid (1 μM) and medium containing Retinoic acid replaced 2 days later. On day 4, cell aggregates are collected by centrifugation, separated to single cells by trypsin/EDTA treatment, replated onto poly-L-lysine-coated plates, and cultured in α-minimal essential medium supplemented with 10% FBS. On day 6, medium is replaced with neurobasal medium containing B27 supplement and 2 mM GlutaMAX. Medium is replaced every 2 days for an additional week[3]. MCE has not independently confirmed the accuracy of these methods. They are for reference only.

References
Molecular Weight

300.44

Formula

C₂₀H₂₈O₂

CAS No.

302-79-4

Storage
Powder -20°C 3 years
  4°C 2 years
In solvent -80°C 6 months
  -20°C 1 month
Shipping

Room temperature in continental US; may vary elsewhere

Solvent & Solubility

10 mM in DMSO

* "<1 mg/mL" means slightly soluble or insoluble. "≥" means soluble, but saturation unknown.

Purity: 98.52%

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Retinoic acid
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