1. Signaling Pathways
  2. Immunology/Inflammation
  3. NOD-like Receptor (NLR)

NOD-like Receptor (NLR)

Nucleotide oligomerization domain (NOD)-like receptors (NLRs) are critical cytoplasmic pattern-recognition receptors (PRRs) that play an important role in the host innate immune response and immunity homeostasis. There are 23 NLR family members in humans and at least 34 NLR genes in mice. NLRs are expressed in many cell types including immune cells and epithelial cells, although certain NLR family members are expressed primarily in phagocytes including macrophages and neutrophils. The NLR family are most commonly classified according to their N-terminal domain, falling into one of four subfamilies; NLRA, NLRB, NLRC and NLRP.

The NLRs recognize various ligands from microbial pathogens (peptidoglycan, flagellin, viral RNA, fungal hyphae, etc.), host cells (ATPs, cholesterol crystals, uric acid, etc.), and environmental sources (alum, asbestos, silica, alloy particles, UV radiation, skin irritants, etc.). Most NLRs act as PRRs, recognizing the above ligands and activate inflammatory responses. However, some NLRs may not act as PRRs but instead respond to cytokines such as interferons. The activated NLRs show various functions that can be divided into four broad categories: inflammasome formation, signaling transduction, transcription activation, and autophagy.

Cat. No. Product Name Effect Purity
  • HY-12815A
    MCC950 sodium
    Inhibitor 99.61%
    MCC950 sodium (CP-456773 sodium; CRID3 sodium salt) is a potent, selective NLRP3 inhibitor with IC50s of 7.5 and 8.1 nM in BMDMs and HMDMs, respectively.
  • HY-100381
    Nigericin sodium salt
    Activator ≥98.0%
    Nigericin sodium salt is an antibiotic from Streptomyces hygroscopicus that works by acting as an H+, K+, and Pb2+ ionophore, a NLRP3 activator.
  • HY-101092
    Activator 99.20%
    QS-21, an immunostimulatory saponin, could be used as a potent vaccine adjuvant. QS-21 stimulates Th2 humoral and Th1 cell-mediated immune responses through action on antigen presenting cells (APCs) and T cells. QS-21 can activate the NLRP3 inflammasome with subsequent release of caspase-1 dependent cytokines, IL-1β and IL-18.
  • HY-103666
    Inhibitor 98.01%
    CY-09 is a selective and direct NLRP3 inhibitor. CY-09 directly binds to the ATP-binding motif of NLRP3 NACHT domain and inhibits NLRP3 ATPase activity, resulting in the suppression of NLRP3 inflammasome assembly and activation.
  • HY-116084
    Trimethylamine N-oxide
    Activator ≥98.0%
    Trimethylamine N-oxide is a gut microbe-dependent metabolite of dietary choline and other trimethylamine-containing nutrients. Trimethylamine N-oxide induces inflammation by activating the ROS/NLRP3 inflammasome. Trimethylamine N-oxide also accelerates fibroblast-myofibroblast differentiation and induces cardiac fibrosis by activating the TGF-β/smad2 signaling pathway.
  • HY-153554
    Inhibitor 98.06%
    NLRP3-IN-18 (compound 13) is a potent NLRP3 inhibitor with an IC50 value of ≤1.0 µM.
  • HY-137888A
    Oxidized ATP trisodium salt
    Oxidized ATP (oATP) trisodium salt is a broad-spectrum P2 receptor inhibitor. Oxidized ATP trisodium salt irreversibly antagonizes P2X7R activation. Oxidized ATP trisodium salt inhibits c-reactive protein (CRP)-induced NLRP3 inflammasome activation. Oxidized ATP trisodium salt can be used for research of atherosclerosis.
  • HY-132831A
    Selnoflast calcium
    Selnoflast calcium (example 6) is a NLRP3 inhibitor (extracted from patent WO2019008025).
  • HY-127090
    Muramyl dipeptide
    Agonist ≥98.0%
    Muramyl dipeptide (MDP) is a synthetic immunoreactive peptide, consisting of N-acetyl muramic acid attached to a short amino acid chain of L-Ala-D-isoGln. Muramyl dipeptide is an inducer of bone formation through induction of Runx2. Muramyl dipeptide directly enhances osteoblast differentiation by up-regulating Runx2 gene expression through MAPK pathways. Muramyl dipeptide is a NLRP1 agonist.
  • HY-17629
    Inhibitor ≥98.0%
    Dapansutrile is a potent, orally active and selective NLRP3 inflammasome inhibitor. Dapansutrile has anti-inflammatory activity and decreases immune factor levels. Dapansutrile can be used for research of inflammatory diseases.
  • HY-136555
    Inhibitor 99.88%
    GSK717 is a potent, selective NOD2 (nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain 2) inhibitor. GSK717 inhibits muramyl dipeptide (MDP)-induced NOD2-mediated signaling, with an IC50 of 400 nM for MDP-stimulated IL-8 secretion in HEK293/hNOD2 cells.
  • HY-B0116
    Inhibitor 99.67%
    Stavudine (d4T) is an orally active nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NRTI). Stavudine has activity against HIV-1 and HIV-2. Stavudine also inhibits the replication of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA). Stavudine reduces NLRP3 inflammasome activation and modulates Amyloid-β autophagy. Stavudine induces apoptosis.
  • HY-N0633
    Inhibitor ≥98.0%
    Muscone is the main active monomer of traditional Chinese medicine musk. Muscone inhibits NF-κB and NLRP3 inflammasome activation. Muscone remarkably decreases the levels of inflammatory cytokines (IL-1β, TNF-α and IL-6), and ultimately improves cardiac function and survival rate.
  • HY-132831
    Inhibitor 98.58%
    Selnoflast (example 6) is a NLRP3 inhibitor (extracted from patent WO2019008025).
  • HY-144226
    Inhibitor 98.00%
    NLRP3/AIM2-IN-3 (compound 59) is a potent inhibitor with differential species specific effects against NLRP3 and AIM2 inflammasome-dependent pyroptosis. NLRP3/AIM2-IN-3 shows inhibitory efficacy against pyroptosis in THP-1 macrophages stimulated with LPS/nigericin, with an IC50 of 0.077 ± 0.008 μM. NLRP3/AIM2-IN-3 disturbs the interaction of NLRP3 or AIM2 with the adaptor protein ASC and inhibited ASC oligomerization.
  • HY-100691
    Inhibitor 99.70%
    NOD-IN-1 is a potent mixed inhibitor of nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain (NOD)-like receptors, NOD1 and NOD2, with IC50 of 5.74 μM and 6.45 μM, respectively.
  • HY-18639
    Inhibitor 99.86%
    Nodinitib-1 (ML130;CID-1088438) is a NOD1 inhibitor with an IC50 of 0.56 μM.
  • HY-N0139
    Inhibitor ≥98.0%
    Troxerutin, also known as vitamin P4, is a tri-hydroxyethylated derivative of natural bioflavonoid rutins which can inhibit the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and depress ER stress-mediated NOD activation.
  • HY-137245A
    Emlenoflast sodium
    Inhibitor 98.76%
    Emlenoflast (MCC7840) sodium, a sulfonylurea, is a potent and selective inhibitor of NLRP3 inflammasome, with an IC50 of <100 nM. Emlenoflast sodium can be used for the research of inflammatory diseases.
  • HY-N0373
    Licochalcone B
    Inhibitor 99.93%
    Licochalcone B is an extract from the root of Glycyrrhiza uralensis. Licochalcone B inhibits amyloid β (42) self-aggregation (IC50=2.16 μM) and disaggregate pre-formed Aβ42 fibrils, reduce metal-induced Aβ42 aggregation through chelating metal ionsLicochalcone B inhibits phosphorylation of NF-κB p65 in LPS signaling pathway. Licochalcone B inhibits growth and induces apoptosis of NSCLC cells. Licochalcone B specifically inhibits the NLRP3 inflammasome by disrupting NEK7‐NLRP3 interaction.
Cat. No. Product Name / Synonyms Application Reactivity