1. Signaling Pathways
  2. Apoptosis
  3. TNF Receptor

TNF Receptor

Tumor necrosis factor (TNF) is a major mediator of apoptosis as well as inflammation and immunity, and it has been implicated in the pathogenesis of a wide spectrum of human diseases, including sepsis, diabetes, cancer, osteoporosis, multiple sclerosis, rheumatoid arthritis, and inflammatory bowel diseases.

TNF-α is a 17-kDa protein consisting of 157 amino acids that is a homotrimer in solution. In humans, the gene is mapped to chromosome 6. Its bioactivity is mainly regulated by soluble TNF-α–binding receptors. TNF-α is mainly produced by activated macrophages, T lymphocytes, and natural killer cells. Lower expression is known for a variety of other cells, including fibroblasts, smooth muscle cells, and tumor cells. In cells, TNF-α is synthesized as pro-TNF (26 kDa), which is membrane-bound and is released upon cleavage of its pro domain by TNF-converting enzyme (TACE).

Many of the TNF-induced cellular responses are mediated by either one of the two TNF receptors, TNF-R1 and TNF-R2, both of which belong to the TNF receptor super-family. In response to TNF treatment, the transcription factor NF-κB and MAP kinases, including ERK, p38 and JNK, are activated in most types of cells and, in some cases, apoptosis or necrosis could also be induced. However, induction of apoptosis or necrosis is mainly achieved through TNFR1, which is also known as a death receptor. Activation of the NF-κB and MAPKs plays an important role in the induction of many cytokines and immune-regulatory proteins and is pivotal for many inflammatory responses.

Cat. No. Product Name Effect Purity
  • HY-11109
    Resatorvid Inhibitor 99.95%
    Resatorvid (TAK-242) is a selective Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) inhibitor. Resatorvid inhibits NO, TNF-R and IL-6 production with IC50s of 1.8 nM, 1.9 nM and 1.3 nM, respectively. Resatorvid downregulates expression of TLR4 downstream signaling molecules MyD88 and TRIF. Resatorvid inhibits autophagy and plays pivotal role in various inflammatory diseases.
  • HY-N0822
    Shikonin Inhibitor 99.80%
    Shikonin is a major component of a Chinese herbal medicine named zicao. Shikonin is a potent TMEM16A chloride channel inhibitor with an IC50 of 6.5 μM. Shikonin is a specific pyruvate kinase M2 (PKM2) inhibitor and can also inhibit TNF-α and NF-κB pathway. Shikonin decreases exosome secretion through the inhibition of glycolysis.
  • HY-15615A
    TIC10 Agonist 99.80%
    TIC10 is a potent, orally active, and stable tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) inducer which acts by inhibiting Akt and ERK, consequently activating Foxo3a and significantly inducing cell surface TRAIL. TIC10 can cross the blood-brain barrier.
  • HY-12085
    Apremilast Inhibitor 99.95%
    Apremilast (CC-10004) is an orally available inhibitor of type-4 cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase (PDE-4) with an IC50 of 74 nM. Apremilast inhibits TNF-α release by lipopolysaccharide (LPS) with an IC50 of 104 nM.
  • HY-N0182
    Fisetin Inhibitor 98.02%
    Fisetin is a natural flavonol found in many fruits and vegetables with various benefits, such as antioxidant, anticancer, neuroprotection effects.
  • HY-108847
    Etanercept Inhibitor
    Etanercept, a dimeric fusion protein that binds TNF, acts as a TNF inhibitor. Etanercept competitively inhibits the binding of both TNF-α and TNF-β to cell surface TNF receptors, rendering TNF biologically inactive. Etanercept shows efficacy against rheumatoid arthritis, juvenile idiopathic arthritis, and plaque psoriasis.
  • HY-15509A
    Semapimod tetrahydrochloride Inhibitor
    Semapimod tetrahydrochloride (CNI-1493), an inhibitor of proinflammatory cytokine production, can inhibit TNF-α, IL-1β, and IL-6. Semapimod tetrahydrochloride inhibits TLR4 signaling (IC50≈0.3 μM). Semapimod tetrahydrochloride inhibits p38 MAPK and nitric oxide production in macrophages. Semapimod tetrahydrochloride has potential in a variety of inflammatory and autoimmune disorders.
  • HY-P9970
    Infliximab Inhibitor
    Infliximab (Avakine) is a chimeric monoclonal IgG1 antibody that specifically binds to TNF-α. Infliximab prevents the interaction of TNF-α with TNF-α receptor (TNFR1 and TNFR2). Infliximab has the potential for autoimmune, chronic inflammatory diseases and diabetic neuropathy research.
  • HY-P0224
    N-Formyl-Met-Leu-Phe Inhibitor 99.46%
    N-Formyl-Met-Leu-Phe (fMLP; N-Formyl-MLF) is a chemotactic peptide and a specific ligand of N-formyl peptide receptor (FPR). N-Formyl-Met-Leu-Ph is reported to inhibit TNF-alpha secretion.
  • HY-P9908
    Adalimumab Inhibitor 98.12%
    Adalimumab is a human monoclonal IgG1 antibody targeting tumour necrosis factor α (TNF-α).
  • HY-13812
    QNZ Inhibitor 98.46%
    QNZ (EVP4593) shows strong inhibitory effects on NF-κB transcriptional activation and TNF-α production with IC50s of 11 and 7 nM, respectively. QNZ (EVP4593) is a neuroprotective inhibitor of SOC channel.
  • HY-110203
    R-7050 Antagonist 98.83%
    R-7050 (TNF-α Antagonist III) is a tumor necrosis factor receptor (TNFR) antagonist with greater selectivity toward TNFα.
  • HY-120934
    C25-140 Inhibitor 99.84%
    C25-140, a first-in-class, orally active, and fairly selective TRAF6-Ubc13 inhibitor, directly binds to TRAF6, and blocks the interaction of TRAF6 with Ubc13. C25-140 lowers TRAF6 activity, reduces NF-κB activation, and combats autoimmunity.
  • HY-N0604
    Ginsenoside Rh1 Inhibitor >98.0%
    Ginsenoside Rh1 (Prosapogenin A2; Sanchinoside B2; Sanchinoside Rh1) is isolated from the root of Panax Ginseng. Ginsenoside Rh1 inhibits the expression of PPAR-γ, TNF-α, IL-6, and IL-1β.
  • HY-111255
    SPD304 Inhibitor >99.0%
    SPD304 is a selective TNF-α inhibitor, which promotes dissociation of TNF trimers and therefore blocks the interaction of TNF and its receptor. SPD304 has an IC50 of 22 µM for inhibiting in vitro TNF receptor 1 (TNFR1) binding to TNF-α.
  • HY-N0029
    Forsythoside B 99.99%
    Forsythoside B is a phenylethanoid glycoside isolated from the leaves of Lamiophlomis rotata Kudo, a Chinese folk medicinal plant for treating inflammatory diseases and promoting blood circulation. Forsythoside B could inhibit TNF-alpha, IL-6, IκB and modulate NF-κB.
  • HY-N0722
    Neochlorogenic acid Inhibitor 99.46%
    Neochlorogenic acid is a natural polyphenolic compound found in dried fruits and other plants. Neochlorogenic acid inhibits the production of TNF-α and IL-1β. Neochlorogenic acid suppresses iNOS and COX-2 protein expression. Neochlorogenic acid also inhibits phosphorylated NF-κB p65 and p38 MAPK activation.
  • HY-107390A
    AX-024 hydrochloride Inhibitor 99.29%
    AX-024 hydrochloride is an orally available, first-in-class inhibitor of the TCR-Nck interaction that selectively inhibits TCR-triggered T cell activation with an IC50 ~1 nM. AX-024 hydrochloride modulates cell signaling by targeting SH3 domains. AX-024 hydrochloride has low-acute toxicity and high potency and selectivity, and strongly inhibit the production of IL-6, TNF-α, IFN-γ, IL-10 and IL-17A.
  • HY-119307
    Apratastat Inhibitor 99.28%
    Apratastat is an orally active, potent, and reversible dual inhibitor of tumor necrosis factor-α converting enzyme (TACE) and matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) . Apratastat can potently inhibit the release of TNF-α in vitro, ex vivo, and in vivo with IC50s of 144 ng/mL in vitro and 81.7 ng/mL ex vivo, respectively.
  • HY-N0633
    Muscone Inhibitor >98.0%
    Muscone is the main active monomer of traditional Chinese medicine musk. Muscone inhibits NF-κB and NLRP3 inflammasome activation. Muscone remarkably decreases the levels of inflammatory cytokines (IL-1β, TNF-α and IL-6), and ultimately improves cardiac function and survival rate.

Following the binding of TNF to TNF receptors, TNFR1 binds to TRADD, which recruits RIPK1, TRAF2/5 and cIAP1/2 to form TNFR1 signaling complex I; TNFR2 binds to TRAF1/2 directly to recruit cIAP1/2. Both cIAP1 and cIAP2 are E3 ubiquitin ligases that add K63 linked polyubiquitin chains to RIPK1 and other components of the signaling complex. The ubiquitin ligase activity of the cIAPs is needed to recruit the LUBAC, which adds M1 linked linear polyubiquitin chains to RIPK1. K63 polyubiquitylated RIPK1 recruits TAB2, TAB3 and TAK1, which activate signaling mediated by JNK and p38, as well as the IκB kinase complex. The IKK complex then activates NF-κB signaling, which leads to the transcription of anti-apoptotic factors-such as FLIP and Bcl-XL-that promote cell survival. 

 

The formation of TNFR1 complex IIa and complex IIb depends on non-ubiquitylated RIPK1. For the formation of complex IIa, ubiquitylated RIPK1 in complex I is deubiquitylated by CYLD. This deubiquitylated RIPK1 dissociates from the membrane-bound complex and moves into the cytosol, where it interacts with TRADD, FADD, Pro-caspase 8 and FLIPL to form complex IIa. By contrast, complex IIb is formed when the RIPK1 in complex I is not ubiquitylated owing to conditions that have resulted in the depletion of cIAPs, which normally ubiquitylate RIPK1. This non-ubiquitylated RIPK1 dissociates from complex I, moves into the cytosol, and assembles with FADD, Pro-caspase 8, FLIPL and RIPK3 (but not TRADD) to form complex IIb. For either complex IIa or complex IIb to prevent necroptosis, both RIPK1 and RIPK3 must be inactivated by the cleavage activity of the Pro-caspase 8-FLIPL heterodimer or fully activated caspase 8. The Pro-caspase 8 homodimer generates active Caspase 8, which is released from complex IIa and complex IIb. This active Caspase 8 then carries out cleavage reactions to activate downstream executioner caspases and thus induce classical apoptosis. 

 

Formation of the complex IIc (necrosome) is initiated either by RIPK1 deubiquitylation mediated by CYLD or by RIPK1 non-ubiquitylation due to depletion of cIAPs, similar to complex IIa and complex IIb formation. RIPK1 recruits numerous RIPK3 molecules. They come together to form amyloid microfilaments called necrosomes. Activated RIPK3 phosphorylates and recruits MLKL, eventually leading to the formation of a supramolecular protein complex at the plasma membrane and necroptosis [1][2].

 

Reference:
[1]. Brenner D, et al. Regulation of tumour necrosis factor signalling: live or let die.Nat Rev Immunol. 2015 Jun;15(6):362-74. 
[2]. Conrad M, et al. Regulated necrosis: disease relevance and therapeutic opportunities.Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2016 May;15(5):348-66. 
 

Targets/MCE-TNF-Receptor-Signaling-Pathway.png

Following the binding of TNF to TNF receptors, TNFR1 binds to TRADD, which recruits RIPK1, TRAF2/5 and cIAP1/2 to form TNFR1 signaling complex I; TNFR2 binds to TRAF1/2 directly to recruit cIAP1/2. Both cIAP1 and cIAP2 are E3 ubiquitin ligases that add K63 linked polyubiquitin chains to RIPK1 and other components of the signaling complex. The ubiquitin ligase activity of the cIAPs is needed to recruit the LUBAC, which adds M1 linked linear polyubiquitin chains to RIPK1. K63 polyubiquitylated RIPK1 recruits TAB2, TAB3 and TAK1, which activate signaling mediated by JNK and p38, as well as the IκB kinase complex. The IKK complex then activates NF-κB signaling, which leads to the transcription of anti-apoptotic factors-such as FLIP and Bcl-XL-that promote cell survival. 

 

The formation of TNFR1 complex IIa and complex IIb depends on non-ubiquitylated RIPK1. For the formation of complex IIa, ubiquitylated RIPK1 in complex I is deubiquitylated by CYLD. This deubiquitylated RIPK1 dissociates from the membrane-bound complex and moves into the cytosol, where it interacts with TRADD, FADD, Pro-caspase 8 and FLIPL to form complex IIa. By contrast, complex IIb is formed when the RIPK1 in complex I is not ubiquitylated owing to conditions that have resulted in the depletion of cIAPs, which normally ubiquitylate RIPK1. This non-ubiquitylated RIPK1 dissociates from complex I, moves into the cytosol, and assembles with FADD, Pro-caspase 8, FLIPL and RIPK3 (but not TRADD) to form complex IIb. For either complex IIa or complex IIb to prevent necroptosis, both RIPK1 and RIPK3 must be inactivated by the cleavage activity of the Pro-caspase 8-FLIPL heterodimer or fully activated caspase 8. The Pro-caspase 8 homodimer generates active Caspase 8, which is released from complex IIa and complex IIb. This active Caspase 8 then carries out cleavage reactions to activate downstream executioner caspases and thus induce classical apoptosis. 

 

Formation of the complex IIc (necrosome) is initiated either by RIPK1 deubiquitylation mediated by CYLD or by RIPK1 non-ubiquitylation due to depletion of cIAPs, similar to complex IIa and complex IIb formation. RIPK1 recruits numerous RIPK3 molecules. They come together to form amyloid microfilaments called necrosomes. Activated RIPK3 phosphorylates and recruits MLKL, eventually leading to the formation of a supramolecular protein complex at the plasma membrane and necroptosis [1][2].

 

Reference:
[1]. Brenner D, et al. Regulation of tumour necrosis factor signalling: live or let die.Nat Rev Immunol. 2015 Jun;15(6):362-74. 
[2]. Conrad M, et al. Regulated necrosis: disease relevance and therapeutic opportunities.Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2016 May;15(5):348-66. 
 

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