1. Signaling Pathways
  2. NF-κB
  3. NF-κB

NF-κB

NF-κB (Nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells) is a protein complex that controls transcription of DNA. NF-κB is found in almost all animal cell types and is involved in cellular responses to stimuli such as stress, cytokines, free radicals, ultraviolet irradiation, oxidized LDL, and bacterial or viral antigens. NF-κB plays a key role in regulating the immune response to infection. Incorrect regulation of NF-κB has been linked to cancer, inflammatory, and autoimmune diseases, septic shock, viral infection, and improper immune development. NF-κB has also been implicated in processes of synaptic plasticity and memory. There are five proteins in the mammalian NF-κB family: NF-κB1, NF-κB2, RelA, RelB, c-Rel.

NF-κB Isoform Specific Products:

  • NF-κB

  • NF-κB1/p50

  • RelA/p65

  • RelB

  • c-Rel

Cat. No. Product Name Effect Purity
  • HY-10227
    Bortezomib Inhibitor ≥98.0%
    Bortezomib (PS-341) is a reversible and selective proteasome inhibitor, and potently inhibits 20S proteasome (Ki=0.6 nM) by targeting a threonine residue. Bortezomib disrupts the cell cycle, induces apoptosis, and inhibits NF-κB. Bortezomib is the first proteasome inhibitor anticancer agent. Anti-cancer activity.
  • HY-18738
    Pyrrolidinedithiocarbamate ammonium Inhibitor ≥98.0%
    Pyrrolidinedithiocarbamate ammonium (Ammonium pyrrolidinedithiocarbamate) is a selective NF-κB inhibitor.
  • HY-100487
    TAK-243 Inhibitor ≥98.0%
    TAK-243 (MLN7243) is a first-in-class, selective ubiquitin activating enzyme, UAE (UBA1) inhibitor (IC50=1 nM), which blocks ubiquitin conjugation, disrupting monoubiquitin signaling as well as global protein ubiquitination. TAK-243 (MLN7243) induces endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress, abrogates NF-κB pathway activation and promotes apoptosis.
  • HY-N0822
    Shikonin Inhibitor 99.80%
    Shikonin is a major component of a Chinese herbal medicine named zicao. Shikonin is a potent TMEM16A chloride channel inhibitor with an IC50 of 6.5 μM. Shikonin is a specific pyruvate kinase M2 (PKM2) inhibitor and can also inhibit TNF-α and NF-κB pathway. Shikonin decreases exosome secretion through the inhibition of glycolysis. Shikonin inhibits AIM2 inflammasome activation.
  • HY-13982
    JSH-23 Inhibitor 99.48%
    JSH-23 is an NF-κB inhibitor which inhibits NF-κB transcriptional activity with an IC50 of 7.1 μM in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated macrophages RAW 264.7. JSH-23 inhibits nuclear translocation of NF-κB p65 without affecting IκBα degradation.
  • HY-137315
    TML-6 Inhibitor 98.34%
    TML-6, an orally active curcumin derivative, inhibits the synthesis of the β-amyloid precursor protein and β-amyloid (Aβ). TML-6 can upregulate Apo E, suppress NF-κB and mTOR, and increase the activity of the anti-oxidative Nrf2 gene. TML-6 has the potential for Alzheimer’s disease (AD) research.
  • HY-134477
    NF-κΒ activator 2 Activator
    NF-κΒ activator 2 is a potent and orally active NF-ҡB activator, with an EC50 of 1.58 μM. NF-κΒ activator 2 induces SOD2 through increasing NF-ҡB expression and activation. NF-κΒ activator 2 can be used for the research of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS).
  • HY-134476
    NF-κΒ activator 1 Activator 98.02%
    NF-κΒ activator 1 is a potent NF-κΒ activator with an EC50 of 0.9 μM. NF-κΒ activator 1 induces superoxide dismutase (SOD)2 mRNA expression.
  • HY-19356
    Rocaglamide Inhibitor 99.34%
    Rocaglamide (Roc-A) is isolated from the genus Aglaia and can be used for coughs, injuries, asthma and inflammatory skin diseases. Rocaglamide is a potent inhibitor of NF-κB activation in T-cells. Rocaglamide is a potent and selective heat shock factor 1 (HSF1) activation inhibitor with an IC50 of ~50 nM. Rocaglamide inhibits the function of the translation initiation factor eIF4A. Rocaglamide also has anticancer properties in leukemia.
  • HY-32735
    Triptolide Inhibitor 99.79%
    Triptolide is a diterpenoid triepoxide extracted from the root of Tripterygium wilfordii with immunosuppressive, anti-inflammatory and antiproliferative effects. Triptolide is a NF-κB activation inhibitor.
  • HY-N0176
    Dihydroartemisinin Inhibitor ≥99.0%
    Dihydroartemisinin is a potent anti-malaria agent.
  • HY-112433
    NIK SMI1 Inhibitor 99.01%
    NIK SMI1 is a potent, selective NF-κB inducing kinase (NIK) inhibitor, which inhibits NIK-catalyzed hydrolysis of ATP to ADP with IC50 of 0.23±0.17 nM.
  • HY-10257
    BAY 11-7085 Inhibitor 99.99%
    BAY 11-7085 (BAY 11-7083) is an inhibitor of NF-κB activation and phosphorylation of IκBα; it stabilizes IκBα with an IC50 of 10 μM.
  • HY-14655
    Sulfasalazine Inhibitor 99.42%
    Sulfasalazine (NSC 667219) is an anti-rheumatic agent for the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis and ulcerative colitis. Sulfasalazine is reported to suppress NF-κB activity.
  • HY-P0151
    SN50 Inhibitor 98.91%
    SN50 is a cell permeable inhibitor of NF-κB translocation.
  • HY-10529
    Betulinic acid Activator ≥98.0%
    Betulinic acid is a natural pentacyclic triterpenoid, acts as a eukaryotic topoisomerase I inhibitor, with an IC50 of 5 μM, and possesses anti-HIV, anti-malarial, anti-inflammatory and anti-tumor properties. Betulinic acid acts as a new activator of NF-kB.
  • HY-N0197
    Baicalin Inhibitor ≥98.0%
    Baicalin is a flavonoid glycoside isolated from Scutellaria baicalensis. Baicalin reduces the expression of NF-κB.
  • HY-N0141
    Parthenolide Inhibitor 99.88%
    Parthenolide is a sesquiterpene lactone found in the medicinal herb Feverfew. Parthenolide exhibits anti-inflammatory activity by inhibiting NF-κB activation; also inhibits HDAC1 protein without affecting other class I/II HDACs.
  • HY-14645
    (-)-DHMEQ Inhibitor 98.83%
    (-)-DHMEQ (Dehydroxymethylepoxyquinomicin) is a potent, selective and irreversible NF-κB inhibitor that covalently binds to a cysteine residue. (-)-DHMEQ inhibits nuclear translocation of NF-κB and shows anti-inflammatory and anticancer activity.
  • HY-N0441
    Neferine Inhibitor 99.92%
    Neferine is a major bisbenzylisoquinline alkaloid. Neferine strongly inhibits NF-κB activation.

NF-κB transcription factors are critical regulators of immunity, stress responses, apoptosis and differentiation. In mammals, there are five members of the transcription factor NF-κB family: RELA (p65), RELB and c-REL, and the precursor proteins NF-κB1 (p105) and NF-κB2 (p100), which are processed into p50 and p52, respectively. NF-κB transcription factors bind as dimers to κB sites in promoters and enhancers of a variety of genes and induce or repress transcription. NF-κB activation occurs via two major signaling pathways: the canonical and the non-canonical NF-κB signaling pathways[1]

 

The canonical NF-κB pathway is triggered by signals from a large variety of immune receptors, such as TNFR, TLR, and IL-1R, which activate TAK1. TAK1 then activates IκB kinase (IKK) complex, composed of catalytic (IKKα and IKKβ) and regulatory (NEMO) subunits, via phosphorylation of IKKβ. Upon stimulation, the IKK complex, largely through IKKβ, phosphorylates members of the inhibitor of κB (IκB) family, such as IκBα and the IκB-like molecule p105, which sequester NF-κB members in the cytoplasm. IκBα associates with dimers of p50 and members of the REL family (RELA or c-REL), whereas p105 associates with p50 or REL (RELA or c-REL). Upon phosphorylation by IKK, IκBα and p105 are degradated in the proteasome, resulting in the nuclear translocation of canonical NF-κB family members, which bind to specific DNA elements, in the form of various dimeric complexes, including RELA-p50, c-REL-p50, and p50-p50. Atypical, IKK-independent pathways of NF-κB induction also provide mechanisms to integrate parallel signaling pathways to increase NF-κB activity, such as hypoxia, UV and genotoxic stress.

 

The non-canonical NF-κB pathway is induced by certain TNF superfamily members, such as CD40L, BAFF and lymphotoxin-β (LT-β), which stimulates the recruitment of TRAF2, TRAF3, cIAP1/2 to the receptor complex. Activated cIAP mediates K48 ubiquitylation and proteasomal degradation of TRAF3, resulting in stabilization and accumulation of the NFκB-inducing kinase (NIK). NIK phosphorylates and activates IKKα, which in turn phosphorylates p100, triggering p100 processing, and leading to the generation of p52 and the nuclear translocation of p52 and RELB[2][3].

 

Reference:

[1]. Oeckinghaus A, et al. The NF-kappaB family of transcription factors and its regulation.Cold Spring Harb Perspect Biol. 2009 Oct;1(4):a000034. 
[2]. Taniguchi K, et al. NF-κB, inflammation, immunity and cancer: coming of age. Nat Rev Immunol. 2018 May;18(5):309-324.
[3]. Perkins ND,et al. Integrating cell-signalling pathways with NF-kappaB and IKK function. Nat Rev Mol Cell Biol. 2007 Jan;8(1):49-62.

Targets/MCE-NF-kB-Signaling-Pathway.png

NF-κB transcription factors are critical regulators of immunity, stress responses, apoptosis and differentiation. In mammals, there are five members of the transcription factor NF-κB family: RELA (p65), RELB and c-REL, and the precursor proteins NF-κB1 (p105) and NF-κB2 (p100), which are processed into p50 and p52, respectively. NF-κB transcription factors bind as dimers to κB sites in promoters and enhancers of a variety of genes and induce or repress transcription. NF-κB activation occurs via two major signaling pathways: the canonical and the non-canonical NF-κB signaling pathways[1]

 

The canonical NF-κB pathway is triggered by signals from a large variety of immune receptors, such as TNFR, TLR, and IL-1R, which activate TAK1. TAK1 then activates IκB kinase (IKK) complex, composed of catalytic (IKKα and IKKβ) and regulatory (NEMO) subunits, via phosphorylation of IKKβ. Upon stimulation, the IKK complex, largely through IKKβ, phosphorylates members of the inhibitor of κB (IκB) family, such as IκBα and the IκB-like molecule p105, which sequester NF-κB members in the cytoplasm. IκBα associates with dimers of p50 and members of the REL family (RELA or c-REL), whereas p105 associates with p50 or REL (RELA or c-REL). Upon phosphorylation by IKK, IκBα and p105 are degradated in the proteasome, resulting in the nuclear translocation of canonical NF-κB family members, which bind to specific DNA elements, in the form of various dimeric complexes, including RELA-p50, c-REL-p50, and p50-p50. Atypical, IKK-independent pathways of NF-κB induction also provide mechanisms to integrate parallel signaling pathways to increase NF-κB activity, such as hypoxia, UV and genotoxic stress.

 

The non-canonical NF-κB pathway is induced by certain TNF superfamily members, such as CD40L, BAFF and lymphotoxin-β (LT-β), which stimulates the recruitment of TRAF2, TRAF3, cIAP1/2 to the receptor complex. Activated cIAP mediates K48 ubiquitylation and proteasomal degradation of TRAF3, resulting in stabilization and accumulation of the NFκB-inducing kinase (NIK). NIK phosphorylates and activates IKKα, which in turn phosphorylates p100, triggering p100 processing, and leading to the generation of p52 and the nuclear translocation of p52 and RELB[2][3].

 

Reference:

[1]. Oeckinghaus A, et al. The NF-kappaB family of transcription factors and its regulation.Cold Spring Harb Perspect Biol. 2009 Oct;1(4):a000034. 
[2]. Taniguchi K, et al. NF-κB, inflammation, immunity and cancer: coming of age. Nat Rev Immunol. 2018 May;18(5):309-324.
[3]. Perkins ND,et al. Integrating cell-signalling pathways with NF-kappaB and IKK function. Nat Rev Mol Cell Biol. 2007 Jan;8(1):49-62.

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