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  3. Doxorubicin

Doxorubicin (Synonyms: Hydroxydaunorubicin)

Cat. No.: HY-15142A
Handling Instructions

Doxorubicin is a cytotoxic anthracycline antibiotic for the treatment of multiple cancers. The possible mechanisms by which doxorubicin acts in the cancer cell are intercalation into DNA and disruption of topoisomerase-II-mediated DNA repair.

For research use only. We do not sell to patients.

Doxorubicin Chemical Structure

Doxorubicin Chemical Structure

CAS No. : 23214-92-8

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Other In-stock Forms of Doxorubicin:

Other Forms of Doxorubicin:

Top Publications Citing Use of Products

Customer Validation

    Doxorubicin purchased from MCE. Usage Cited in: Cell Signal. 2017 May 1;36:108-116.

    PAQR3 affects DNA damage repair. AGS cells are treated with different doses of Etoposide (for 24 h), Cisplatin (for 24 h) and Doxorubicin (for 10 h) as indicated, followed by immunoblotting with the antibodies.

    Doxorubicin purchased from MCE. Usage Cited in: Cell Physiol Biochem. 2017 Jun 27;42(3):965-973.

    U937 cells are treated with Thapsigargin (TG, 1 μM), Paclitaxel (PTX, 5nM) as well as Doxorubincin (DOX, 1 μM) for 12 hours and the indicated proteins are detected by Western blot.

    Doxorubicin purchased from MCE. Usage Cited in: J Clin Invest. 2018 Jan 2;128(1):483-499.

    Immunoblotting for EZH2 in lysates of immortalized mouse podocytes after treatment with Adriamycin (300 ng/mL) for 48 hours (n=6).

    Doxorubicin purchased from MCE. Usage Cited in: J Exp Clin Cancer Res. 2018 Sep 19;37(1):232.

    Immunoblotting shows that both P-gp protein expression is significantly decreased in 24 h after US exposure in MCF-7/ADR and HEPG2/ADM cells.

    Doxorubicin purchased from MCE. Usage Cited in: J Cell Mol Med. 2019 Jun 21.

    Effects of YWPC (50 mg/L for 24 h) on DOX (5 μM for 24 h)-induces dissipation of mitochondrial membrane potential measured in H9C2 cells loaded with JC-1 using fluorescence microscopy.

    Doxorubicin purchased from MCE. Usage Cited in: Nat Med. 2016 May;22(5):547-56.

    Immunofluorescent staining for α-actinin (ACTN2) and cardiac troponin T (TNNT2) to demonstrate sarcomeric organization in hiPSC–CMs derived from patients who do not experience Doxorubicin–induced cardiotoxicity (DOX) versus those who do experience Doxorubicin-induced cardiotoxicity (DOXTOX) after 24 h treatment with Doxorubicin. Scale bar, 20 µm.

    Doxorubicin purchased from MCE. Usage Cited in: Nat Commun. 2018 Oct 8;9(1):4139.

    One hour after treated with UV or 2 h after treated with MMS, Camptothecin (CPT) (10 μM), or Doxorubicin (DOX; 0.5 μM), HEK293T cells expressing HA-SUMO2 and His-RhoB are subjected to sumoylation assay to detect the SUMO2 conjugation of RhoB.

    Doxorubicin purchased from MCE. Usage Cited in: Nanoscale Res Lett. 2018 Nov 3;13(1):350.

    HY-15142

    Doxorubicin purchased from MCE. Usage Cited in: Free Radic Biol Med. 2019 Jan;130:557-567.

    Representative pictures of Live/Dead staining of effects of 7,8-DHF on high dose of Dox-induced cell death and MMP reduction of H9c2 cells.

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    • Biological Activity

    • Protocol

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    • References

    Description

    Doxorubicin is a cytotoxic anthracycline antibiotic for the treatment of multiple cancers. The possible mechanisms by which doxorubicin acts in the cancer cell are intercalation into DNA and disruption of topoisomerase-II-mediated DNA repair.

    IC50 & Target

    Topoisomerase II

     

    In Vitro

    Combination of Doxorubicin and Simvastatin in the highest tested concentrations (2 μM and 10 μM, respec-tively) kills 97% of the Hela cells[2].

    In Vivo

    Mice bearing PC3 xenografts are injected with 2, 4 or 8 mg/kg Doxorubicin and tumor volume is measured over time. A dose of 2 mg/kg does not affect tumor growth while higher dosages delay tumor growth initially (p<0.05 at days 18 and 22), 4 mg/kg or 8 mg/kg Doxorubicin significantly reduces levels of c-FLIP in PC3 xenografts[3]. A single intraperitoneal injection 10 mg/kg (Doxorubicin 1) is administered in rats, 10 daily intraperitoneal injections of 1 mg/kg (Doxorubicin 2), or in 5 weekly intraperitoneal injections of 2 mg/kg (Doxorubicin 3). An 80% mortality rate is observed at day 28 in Doxorubicin 1, whereas Doxorubicin 2 and Doxorubicin 3 reached 80% mortality at days 107 and 98, respectively. Fractional shortening decreased by 30% at week 2 in Doxorubicin DOX1, 55% at week 13 in Doxorubicin 2, and 42% at week 13 in Doxorubicin 3[4].

    Clinical Trial
    Storage

    Please store the product under the recommended conditions in the Certificate of Analysis.

    Solvent & Solubility
    In Vivo:
    • 1.

      Doxorubicin (dissolved with distilled water) is incorporated into 0.035% CaCl2 solution[5].

    • 2.

      Doxorubicin (Adriamycin) is prepared in vehicle (PBS)[6].

    References
    Cell Assay
    [2]

    160 μL of Hela cells suspension (3×104 cell/mL) is dispensed into three 96-well U-bottom microplates and incubated for 24 h at 37°C in a fully humidified atmosphere of 5% CO2. In plate 1, serial dilutions of Doxorubicin (20 μL; final concentration, 0.1-2 μM) and Simvastatin (20 μL; final concentration, 0.25-2 μM) are added to a final volume of 200 μL and incubated for another 72 h. In plates 2 and 3 serial dilutions of each drug (Simvastatin or Doxorubicin, 40 μL) are added. After an incubation period of 24 h, the medium is aspirated and the cells are washed in PBS. Then, serial dilutions of other drug (40 μL) are added and supplemented with culture medium to a final volume of 200 μL, and incubated for 48 h. Doxorubicin and Simvastatin are used individually as positive controls (40 μL in each well), and the cells treated only with solvent are considered as negative controls. To evaluate cell survival, 20 μL of MTT solution (5 mg/mL in PBS) is added to each well and incubated for 3 h. Then the media is replaced with 150 μL of DMSO, and complete solubilization of formazan crystals is achieved by repeated pipetting of the solution. Absorbance is then determined at 540 nm by an ELISA plate reader. Each drug concentration is assayed in 4 or 8 wells and repeated 3 times. The cytotoxic/cytostatic effect of Doxorubicin is expressed as the relative viability (% control) and calculated. Percentage of cell survival in the negative control is assumed as 100. Relative viability=(experimental absorbance-background absorbance)/ (absorbance of untreated controls-background absorbance)×100 %[2].

    MCE has not independently confirmed the accuracy of these methods. They are for reference only.

    Animal Administration
    [3][4]

    Mice[3]
    Athymic male nude mice (3-4 weeks old) are used. PC3 cells (4×106) are injected subcutaneously into the flanks of mice. Animals bearing tumors are randomly assigned to treatment groups (five or six mice per group) and treatment initated when xenografts reached volumes of about 100 mm3. Tumors are measured using digital calipers and volume calculated using the formula: Volume=Width2×Length×0.52, where width represents the shorter dimension of the tumor. Treatments are administered as indicated using vehicle (PBS containing 0.1% BSA), Doxorubicin (2-8 mg/kg), Apo2L/TRAIL (500 μg/animal), or a combination of 4 mg/kg Doxorubicin followed by 500 μg Apo2L/TRAIL. Doxorubicin is administered systemically whereas Apo2L/TRAIL is given either intra-tumorally or systemically. All treatments are given once. Mice are monitored daily for signs of adverse effects (listlessness and scruffy apparance). Treatments seemed to be well tolerated. The mean±SEM is calculated for each data point. Differences between treatment groups are analyzed by the student t-test. Differences are considered significant when P<0.05.
    Rats[4]
    Thirty male Sprague-Dawley rats weighing 250 to 300 g are randomly assigned to 1 of 3 experimental groups: Doxorubicin schedule 1 (Doxorubicin 1, n=10), Doxorubicin schedule 2 (Doxorubicin 2, n=10), or Doxorubicin schedule 3 (Doxorubicin 3, n=10). For all Doxorubicin treatment schedules, the cumulative dose of Doxorubicin is 10 mg/kg. Schedule 1 involves a single bolus intraperitoneal injection of Doxorubicin at 10 mg/kg. Schedule 2 involves 10 intraperitoneal injections of Doxorubicin at 1 mg/kg for 10 consecutive days. Schedule 3 involves 5 intraperitoneal injections of Doxorubicin at 2 mg/kg, once each week, for 5 wk. Immediately before the first Doxorubicin treatment and at weekly intervals after beginning Doxorubicin treatment, blood pressure and cardiac function are assessed in all surviving animals as long as there are at least 3 rats per group.

    MCE has not independently confirmed the accuracy of these methods. They are for reference only.

    References
    Molecular Weight

    543.52

    Formula

    C₂₇H₂₉NO₁₁

    CAS No.

    23214-92-8

    SMILES

    [H][[email protected]@]1(O[[email protected]]2C[[email protected]](O)(C(CO)=O)CC(C2=C3O)=C(O)C4=C3C(C5=C(OC)C=CC=C5C4=O)=O)O[[email protected]@H](C)[[email protected]@H](O)[[email protected]@H](N)C1

    Shipping

    Room temperature in continental US; may vary elsewhere

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    Product Name:
    Doxorubicin
    Cat. No.:
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    Cat. No.: HY-15142A