1. Signaling Pathways
  2. Anti-infection
  3. Parasite
  4. Plasmodium Isoform

Plasmodium

The key to the Plasmodium life cycle is the Anopheles mosquito, the only genera of mosquito able to support replication of the parasite. Human infection begins following release of infectious sporozoites from a female Anopheles spp. mosquito while she takes a blood meal. Sporozoites disseminate to the liver, infect hepatocytes and over the next 7 to 16 days, differentiate and replicate into thousands of merozoites, all contained within a intracytoplasmic vesicle referred to as the schizont. The schizont, along with the host hepatocyte, ultimately ruptures, releasing thousands of merozoites into the bloodstream. Some Plasmodium species (i.e., P. vivax and P. ovale) can persist in a dormant phase within hepatocytes and lead to relapse infections months to years following initial infection. Released merozoites infect erythrocytes and undergo asexual replication, resulting in formation of a schizont and eventual rupture of the erythrocyte, allowing for invasion of new erythrocytes. Depending on the species, this erythrocyte invasion cycle occurs every 1 to 3 days, coinciding with febrile episodes. A small fraction of merozoites form male and female gametocytes, which also circulate in the bloodstream and are the forms that are infectious to the mosquito. Following ingestion by a female Anopheles mosquito, the gametocytes mature and fuse to form a zygote, which eventually develops into an oocyst harboring the human-infectious sporozoite forms. The sporozoites are released and travel to the mosquito salivary glands in preparation for the next blood meal, completing the parasite life cycle.

The clinical manifestations of Malaria begin upon rupture of the merozoites from erythrocytes. Following synchronization of erythrocyte rupture, the onset of febrile episodes stabilizes, occurring every 48 hours in cases of P. falciparum, P. vivax and P. ovale infections and every 72 hours in cases of P. malariae infection. Initial malarial infections present nonspecifically with fever, tachycardia, headache, chills, nausea, anorexia, and fatigue. Among the five species associated with human disease, P. falciparum causes the greatest morbidity and mortality, followed by P. vivax.

Plasmodium Related Products (92):

Cat. No. Product Name Effect Purity
  • HY-17589A
    Chloroquine
    Inhibitor 99.98%
    Chloroquine is an antimalarial and anti-inflammatory agent widely used to treat malaria and rheumatoid arthritis.
  • HY-17589
    Chloroquine phosphate
    Inhibitor 99.89%
    Chloroquine phosphate is an antimalarial and anti-inflammatory agent widely used to treat malaria and rheumatoid arthritis.
  • HY-N0176
    Dihydroartemisinin
    Inhibitor 99.03%
    Dihydroartemisinin is a potent anti-malaria agent.
  • HY-B1370
    Hydroxychloroquine sulfate
    Inhibitor 99.99%
    Hydroxychloroquine sulfate (HCQ sulfate) is a synthetic antimalarial agent which can also inhibit Toll-like receptor 7/9 (TLR7/9) signaling.
  • HY-B0094
    Artemisinin
    Inhibitor 99.03%
    Artemisinin (Qinghaosu), a sesquiterpene lactone, is an anti-malarial drug isolated from the aerial parts of Artemisia annua L.
  • HY-147971
    Anticancer agent 75
    Inhibitor
    Anticancer agent 75 is a potent anticancer agent.
  • HY-148035
    Plm IV inhibitor-2
    Inhibitor
    Plm IV inhibitor-2 (compound 3) is a potent digestive vacuole plasmepsins IV (Plm IV) inhibitor with IC50 values of 24 nM, 70 nM and 0.3 μM for Plm IV, II and I, respectively.
  • HY-144296
    Purine phosphoribosyltransferase-IN-2
    Inhibitor
    Purine phosphoribosyltransferase-IN-2 is a potent inhibitor of the Plasmodium falciparum ((Pf)), Plasmodium vivax ((Pv)) and Trypanosoma brucei ((Tbr)) 6-oxopurine phosphoribosyltransferase (PRT), with Kis of 30, 20 and 2 nM, respectively.
  • HY-13832
    Atovaquone
    Inhibitor 99.73%
    Atovaquone (Atavaquone) is a potent, selective and orally active inhibitor of the parasite’s mitochondrial cytochrome bc1 complex.
  • HY-N0674
    Dehydrocorydaline
    Inhibitor 99.77%
    Dehydrocorydaline (13-Methylpalmatine) is an alkaloid that regulates protein expression of Bax, Bcl-2; activates caspase-7, caspase-8, and inactivates PARP.
  • HY-17437A
    Mefloquine hydrochloride
    Inhibitor 99.98%
    Mefloquine hydrochloride (Mefloquin hydrochloride), a quinoline antimalarial agent, is an anti-SARS-CoV-2 entry inhibitor.
  • HY-13557
    Ascomycin
    Inhibitor 99.62%
    Ascomycin (Immunomycin; FR-900520; FK520) is an ethyl analog of Tacrolimus (FK506) with strong immunosuppressant properties.
  • HY-103353
    SID 26681509
    Inhibitor 98.26%
    SID 26681509 is a potent, reversible, competitive, and selective inhibitor of human cathepsin L with an IC50 of 56 nM.
  • HY-N0498
    Nitidine chloride
    Inhibitor 99.61%
    Nitidine chloride, a potential anti-malarial lead compound derived from Zanthoxylum nitidum (Roxb) DC, exerts potent anticancer activity through diverse pathways, including inducing apoptosis, inhibiting STAT3 signaling cascade, DNA topoisomerase 1 and 2A, ERK and c-Src/FAK associated signaling pathway.
  • HY-B0803
    Lumefantrine
    Inhibitor 98.41%
    Lumefantrine is an antimalarial drug, used in combination with Artemether.
  • HY-14932
    Pafuramidine
    Inhibitor 99.21%
    Pafuramidine (DB289) is an orally active prodrug of Furamidine (HY-110137A).
  • HY-N0674A
    Dehydrocorydaline chloride
    Inhibitor 99.72%
    Dehydrocorydaline chloride (13-Methylpalmatine chloride) is an alkaloid that regulates protein expression of Bax, Bcl-2; activates caspase-7, caspase-8, and inactivates PARP.
  • HY-108024A
    Ganaplacide hydrochloride
    Inhibitor ≥98.0%
    Ganaplacide (KAF156) hydrochloride is a first-in-class, orally active imidazolopiperazine antimalarial agent.
  • HY-N0281
    Daphnetin
    Inhibitor 99.21%
    Daphnetin (7,8-dihydroxycoumarin), one coumarin derivative can be found in plants of the Genus Daphne, is a potent, oral active protein kinase inhibitor, with IC50s of 7.67 μM, 9.33 μM and 25.01 μM for EGFR, PKA and PKC in vitro, respectively.
  • HY-18748
    BQR-695
    Inhibitor 99.87%
    BQR-695 is a PI4KIIIβ inhibitor with IC50s of 80 and 3.5 nM for human PI4KIIIβ and Plasmodium variant of PI4KIIIβ, respectively.