1. Signaling Pathways
  2. Anti-infection
  3. Parasite
  4. Plasmodium Isoform

Plasmodium

The key to the Plasmodium life cycle is the Anopheles mosquito, the only genera of mosquito able to support replication of the parasite. Human infection begins following release of infectious sporozoites from a female Anopheles spp. mosquito while she takes a blood meal. Sporozoites disseminate to the liver, infect hepatocytes and over the next 7 to 16 days, differentiate and replicate into thousands of merozoites, all contained within a intracytoplasmic vesicle referred to as the schizont. The schizont, along with the host hepatocyte, ultimately ruptures, releasing thousands of merozoites into the bloodstream. Some Plasmodium species (i.e., P. vivax and P. ovale) can persist in a dormant phase within hepatocytes and lead to relapse infections months to years following initial infection. Released merozoites infect erythrocytes and undergo asexual replication, resulting in formation of a schizont and eventual rupture of the erythrocyte, allowing for invasion of new erythrocytes. Depending on the species, this erythrocyte invasion cycle occurs every 1 to 3 days, coinciding with febrile episodes. A small fraction of merozoites form male and female gametocytes, which also circulate in the bloodstream and are the forms that are infectious to the mosquito. Following ingestion by a female Anopheles mosquito, the gametocytes mature and fuse to form a zygote, which eventually develops into an oocyst harboring the human-infectious sporozoite forms. The sporozoites are released and travel to the mosquito salivary glands in preparation for the next blood meal, completing the parasite life cycle.

The clinical manifestations of Malaria begin upon rupture of the merozoites from erythrocytes. Following synchronization of erythrocyte rupture, the onset of febrile episodes stabilizes, occurring every 48 hours in cases of P. falciparum, P. vivax and P. ovale infections and every 72 hours in cases of P. malariae infection. Initial malarial infections present nonspecifically with fever, tachycardia, headache, chills, nausea, anorexia, and fatigue. Among the five species associated with human disease, P. falciparum causes the greatest morbidity and mortality, followed by P. vivax.

Plasmodium Related Products (203):

Cat. No. Product Name Effect Purity
  • HY-17589A
    Chloroquine
    Inhibitor 99.82%
    Chloroquine is an antimalarial and anti-inflammatory agent widely used to treat malaria and rheumatoid arthritis. Chloroquine is an autophagy and toll-like receptors (TLRs) inhibitor. Chloroquine is highly effective in the control of SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19) infection in vitro (EC50=1.13 μM).
  • HY-17589
    Chloroquine phosphate
    Inhibitor 99.89%
    Chloroquine phosphate is an antimalarial and anti-inflammatory agent widely used to treat malaria and rheumatoid arthritis. Chloroquine phosphate is an autophagy and toll-like receptors (TLRs) inhibitor. Chloroquine phosphate is highly effective in the control of SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19) infection in vitro (EC50=1.13 μM).
  • HY-B0221
    Amphotericin B
    ≥98.0%
    Amphotericin B is a polyene antifungal agent against a wide variety of fungal pathogens. It binds irreversibly to ergosterol, resulting in disruption of membrane integrity and ultimately cell death.
  • HY-W031727
    Hydroxychloroquine
    Inhibitor ≥98.0%
    Hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) is a synthetic oral antimalarial drug that can be used in the study of malaria and autoimmune diseases such as systemic lupus erythematosus and rheumatoid arthritis. Hydroxychloroquine is a potent autophagic flux inhibitor with antiviral activity (such as SARS-CoV-2 virus) that inhibits Toll-like receptor 7/9 (TLR7/9) signaling.
  • HY-N0176
    Dihydroartemisinin
    Inhibitor 99.03%
    Dihydroartemisinin is a potent anti-malaria agent.
  • HY-B1370
    Hydroxychloroquine sulfate
    Inhibitor 99.99%
    Hydroxychloroquine sulfate (HCQ sulfate) is a synthetic antimalarial agent which can also inhibit Toll-like receptor 7/9 (TLR7/9) signaling. Hydroxychloroquine sulfate is efficiently inhibits SARS-CoV-2 infection in vitro.
  • HY-143218
    TPE-MI
    98.54%
    TPE-MI (Tetraphenylethene maleimide) is a thiol probe for measuring unfolded protein load and proteostasis in cells. TPE-MI can report imbalances in proteostasis in induced pluripotent stem cell models of Huntington disease, as well as cells transfected with mutant Huntington exon 1 before the formation of visible aggregates. TPE-MI also detects protein damage following dihydroartemisinin research of the malaria parasitesPlasmodium falciparum .
  • HY-N1584
    Halofuginone
    Inhibitor 99.92%
    Halofuginone (RU-19110), a Febrifugine derivative, is a competitive prolyl-tRNA synthetase inhibitor with a Ki of 18.3 nM. Halofuginone is a specific inhibitor of type-I collagen synthesis and attenuates osteoarthritis (OA) by inhibition of TGF-β activity. Halofuginone is also a potent pulmonary vasodilator by activating Kv channels and blocking voltage-gated, receptor-operated and store-operated Ca2+ channels. Halofuginone has anti-malaria, anti-inflammatory, anti-cancer, anti-fibrosis effects.
  • HY-B0094
    Artemisinin
    Inhibitor 98.40%
    Artemisinin (Qinghaosu), a sesquiterpene lactone, is an anti-malarial agent isolated from the aerial parts of Artemisia annua L. plants. Artemisinin inhibits AKT signaling pathway by decreasing pAKT in a dose-dependent manner. Artemisinin reduces cancer cell proliferation, migration, invasion, tumorigenesis and metastasis and has neuroprotective effects.
  • HY-16438
    RRx-001
    Inhibitor 99.16%
    RRx-001, a hypoxia-selective epigenetic agent and studied as a radio- and chem-sensitizer, triggers apoptosis and overcomes agent resistance in myeloma. RRx-001 exhibits potent anti-tumor activity with minimal toxicity. RRx-001 is a dual small molecule checkpoint inhibitor by downregulating CD47 and SIRP-α. RRx-001 is a potent inhibitor of G6PD and shows potent antimalarial activity.
  • HY-B1751
    Quinidine (15% dihydroquinidine)
    Inhibitor 99.19%
    Quinidine (15% dihydroquinidine) is an antiarrhythmic agent. Quinidine is a potent, orally active, selective cytochrome P450db inhibitor. Quinidine is also a K+ channel blocker with an IC50 of 19.9 μM, and can induce apoptosis. Quinidine can be used for malaria research.
  • HY-13832
    Atovaquone
    Inhibitor 99.73%
    Atovaquone (Atavaquone) is a potent, selective and orally active inhibitor of the parasite’s mitochondrial cytochrome bc1 complex. Atovaquone is against human and  P. falciparum cytochrome bc1 activity with IC50 values of 460 nM and 2.0 nM, respectively. Atovaquone is an antimalarial agent and has the potential for the investigation of neumocystis pneumonia, toxoplasmosis, malaria, and babesia.
  • HY-13735A
    Quinacrine dihydrochloride
    Inhibitor 99.38%
    Quinacrine (Mepacrine) dihydrochloride is an orally bioavailable antimalarial agent, which possess anticancer effect both in vitro and vivo. Quinacrine dihydrochloride suppresses NF-κB and activate p53 signaling, which results in the induction of the apoptosis.
  • HY-D0143
    Quinine
    Inhibitor 98.05%
    Quinine is an alkaloid derived from the bark of the cinchona tree, acts as an anti-malaria agent. Quinine is a potassium channel inhibitor that inhibits WT mouse Slo3 (KCa5.1) channel currents evoked by voltage pulses to +100 mV with an IC50 of 169 μM.
  • HY-N0674
    Dehydrocorydaline
    Inhibitor 99.77%
    Dehydrocorydaline (13-Methylpalmatine) is an alkaloid that regulates protein expression of Bax, Bcl-2; activates caspase-7, caspase-8, and inactivates PARP. Dehydrocorydaline elevates p38 MAPK activation. Anti-inflammatory and anti-cancer activities. Dehydrocorydaline shows strong anti-malarial effects (IC50=38 nM), and low cytotoxicity (cell viability > 90%) using P. falciparum 3D7 strain.
  • HY-17437A
    Mefloquine hydrochloride
    Inhibitor 99.99%
    Mefloquine hydrochloride (Mefloquin hydrochloride), a quinoline antimalarial agent, is an anti-SARS-CoV-2 entry inhibitor. Mefloquine hydrochloride is also a K+ channel (KvQT1/minK) antagonist with an IC50 of ~1 μM. Mefloquine hydrochloride can be used for malaria, systemic lupus erythematosus and cancer research.
  • HY-N1584A
    Halofuginone hydrobromide
    Inhibitor 99.99%
    Halofuginone (RU-19110) hydrobromid, a Febrifugine derivative, is a competitive prolyl-tRNA synthetase inhibitor with a Ki of 18.3 nM. Halofuginone hydrobromid is a specific inhibitor of type-I collagen synthesis and attenuates osteoarthritis (OA) by inhibition of TGF-β activity. Halofuginone hydrobromid is also a potent pulmonary vasodilator by activating Kv channels and blocking voltage-gated, receptor-operated and store-operated Ca2+ channels. Halofuginone hydrobromid has anti-malaria, anti-inflammatory, anti-cancer, anti-fibrosis effects.
  • HY-N0281
    Daphnetin
    Inhibitor 99.86%
    Daphnetin (7,8-dihydroxycoumarin), one coumarin derivative can be found in plants of the Genus Daphne, is a potent, oral active protein kinase inhibitor, with IC50s of 7.67 μM, 9.33 μM and 25.01 μM for EGFR, PKA and PKC in vitro, respectively. Daphnetin triggers ROS-induced cell apoptosis and induces cytoprotective autophagy by modulating the AMPK/Akt/mTOR pathway. Daphnetin has anti-inflammation activitity and inhibits TNF-α, IL-1ß, ROS, and MDA production. Daphnetin has schizontocidal activity against malaria parasites. Daphnetin can be used for rheumatoid arthritis , cancer and anti-malarian research.
  • HY-13557
    Ascomycin
    Inhibitor ≥98.0%
    Ascomycin (Immunomycin; FR-900520; FK520) is an ethyl analog of Tacrolimus (FK506) with strong immunosuppressant properties. Ascomycin is also a macrocyclic polyketide antibiotic with multiple biological activities such as anti-malarial, anti-fungal and anti-spasmodic. Ascomycin prevents graft rejection and has potential for varying skin ailments research.
  • HY-12651
    Primaquine diphosphate
    Inhibitor 99.61%
    Primaquine diphosphate is a potent antimalaria agent and a potent gametocytocide in falciparum malaria. Primaquine diphosphate prevents relapse in vivax and ovale malaria.