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  3. Tunicamycin

Tunicamycin is a mixture of homologous nucleoside antibiotic that inhibits N-linked glycosylation and blocks GlcNAc phosphotransferase (GPT). Tunicamycin causes accumulation of unfolded proteins in cell endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and induces ER stress, and causes blocking of DNA synthesis and cell cycle arrest in G1 phase. Tunicamycin inhibits gram-positive bacteria, yeasts, fungi, and viruses and has anti-cancer activity.Tunicamycin increases exosome release in cervical cancer cells.

For research use only. We do not sell to patients.

Tunicamycin Chemical Structure

Tunicamycin Chemical Structure

CAS No. : 11089-65-9

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Customer Review

Based on 88 publication(s) in Google Scholar

Top Publications Citing Use of Products

86 Publications Citing Use of MCE Tunicamycin

WB
Proliferation Assay

    Tunicamycin purchased from MedChemExpress. Usage Cited in: PLoS Biol. 2018 Oct 18;16(10):e2006483.   [Abstract]

    SK-Hep1 cells stably expressing EV or Flag-PGM1 are treated with or without 0.1 ug/mL Tunicamycin, and cell proliferation is measured.

    Tunicamycin purchased from MedChemExpress. Usage Cited in: Cell Death Dis. 2018 May 22;9(6):604.  [Abstract]

    Western blot analysis of ER stress-related proteins after PPI treatment for 48 h in both pH 7.4 and pH 6.5 conditions. Cells treated with Thapsigargin (TG, 0.5 and 1 μM) or Tunicamycin (Tu, 2.5, 5 and 10 μg/mL) for 24 h served as positive controls.

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    Description

    Tunicamycin is a mixture of homologous nucleoside antibiotic that inhibits N-linked glycosylation and blocks GlcNAc phosphotransferase (GPT). Tunicamycin causes accumulation of unfolded proteins in cell endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and induces ER stress, and causes blocking of DNA synthesis and cell cycle arrest in G1 phase. Tunicamycin inhibits gram-positive bacteria, yeasts, fungi, and viruses and has anti-cancer activity[1][2][3].Tunicamycin increases exosome release in cervical cancer cells[4].

    In Vitro

    Tunicamycin (2 μg/mL; 24 hours; CD44+/CD24- and original MCF7 cells) treatment increases the spliced XBP-1, ATF6 nuclear translocation level and CHOP protein expression in CD44+/CD24- and original MCF7 cells[1].
    Tunicamycin-induced ER stress suppresses CD44+/CD24- phenotype cell subpopulation and in vitro invasion and accelerates tumorosphore formation. Under effect of Tunicamycin, the results show that inhibited invasion, increased cell death, suppressed proliferation and reduced migration in the CD44+/CD24- and CD44+/CD24- rich MCF7 cell culture[1].

    MedChemExpress (MCE) has not independently confirmed the accuracy of these methods. They are for reference only.

    Western Blot Analysis

    Cell Line: CD44+/CD24- and original MCF7 cells[1]
    Concentration: 2 µg/mL
    Incubation Time: 24 hours
    Result: Increased level of spliced XBP-1, ATF6 nuclear translocation and CHOP protein expression are detected in CD44+/CD24- and original MCF7 cells.
    In Vivo

    Tunicamycin (0.1 mg/kg or 0.5 mg/kg) treatment dramatically suppresses tumor growth in the CD133+/- MHCC97L cells xenograft model (BALB/c (nu/nu) mice)[2].

    MedChemExpress (MCE) has not independently confirmed the accuracy of these methods. They are for reference only.

    Molecular Weight

    844.94 (n=10)

    Formula

    C39H64N4O16

    CAS No.
    Appearance

    Solid

    Color

    Off-white to light yellow

    SMILES

    O=C1NC(N([C@H]2[C@H](O)[C@H](O)[C@@H](C(C[C@@H]3[C@H](O)[C@H](O)[C@@H](NC(/C=C/[(CH2) 8-11]C(C)C)=O)[C@H](O[C@H]4O[C@H](CO)[C@@H](O)[C@H](O)[C@H]4NC(C)=O)O3)O)O2)C=C1)=O

    Structure Classification
    Initial Source

    Streptomyces lysosuperficus

    Shipping

    Room temperature in continental US; may vary elsewhere.

    Storage
    Powder -20°C 3 years
    In solvent -80°C 6 months
    -20°C 1 month
    Solvent & Solubility
    In Vitro: 

    DMSO : 33.33 mg/mL (Need ultrasonic; Hygroscopic DMSO has a significant impact on the solubility of product, please use newly opened DMSO)

    Ethanol : 1 mg/mL (ultrasonic and warming and heat to 60°C)

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    In Vivo:

    Select the appropriate dissolution method based on your experimental animal and administration route.

    For the following dissolution methods, please ensure to first prepare a clear stock solution using an In Vitro approach and then sequentially add co-solvents:
    To ensure reliable experimental results, the clarified stock solution can be appropriately stored based on storage conditions. As for the working solution for in vivo experiments, it is recommended to prepare freshly and use it on the same day.
    The percentages shown for the solvents indicate their volumetric ratio in the final prepared solution. If precipitation or phase separation occurs during preparation, heat and/or sonication can be used to aid dissolution.

    • Protocol 1

      Add each solvent one by one:  10% DMSO    40% PEG300    5% Tween-80    45% Saline

      Solubility: ≥ 2 mg/mL; Clear solution

      This protocol yields a clear solution of ≥ 2 mg/mL (saturation unknown).

      Taking 1 mL working solution as an example, add 100 μL DMSO stock solution (20.0 mg/mL) to 400 μL PEG300, and mix evenly; then add 50 μL Tween-80 and mix evenly; then add 450 μL Saline to adjust the volume to 1 mL.

      Preparation of Saline: Dissolve 0.9 g sodium chloride in ddH₂O and dilute to 100 mL to obtain a clear Saline solution.
    • Protocol 2

      Add each solvent one by one:  10% DMSO    90% (20% SBE-β-CD in Saline)

      Solubility: ≥ 2 mg/mL; Clear solution

      This protocol yields a clear solution of ≥ 2 mg/mL (saturation unknown).

      Taking 1 mL working solution as an example, add 100 μL DMSO stock solution (20.0 mg/mL) to 900 μL 20% SBE-β-CD in Saline, and mix evenly.

      Preparation of 20% SBE-β-CD in Saline (4°C, storage for one week): 2 g SBE-β-CD powder is dissolved in 10 mL Saline, completely dissolve until clear.
    In Vivo Dissolution Calculator
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    Recommended: Keep the proportion of DMSO in working solution below 2% if your animal is weak.
    The co-solvents required include: DMSO, . All of co-solvents are available by MedChemExpress (MCE). , Tween 80. All of co-solvents are available by MedChemExpress (MCE).
    Calculation results:
    Working solution concentration: mg/mL
    Method for preparing stock solution: mg drug dissolved in μL  DMSO (Stock solution concentration: mg/mL).
    The concentration of the stock solution you require exceeds the measured solubility. The following solution is for reference only. If necessary, please contact MedChemExpress (MCE).
    Method for preparing in vivo working solution for animal experiments: Take μL DMSO stock solution, add μL . μL , mix evenly, next add μL Tween 80, mix evenly, then add μL Saline.
     If the continuous dosing period exceeds half a month, please choose this protocol carefully.
    Please ensure that the stock solution in the first step is dissolved to a clear state, and add co-solvents in sequence. You can use ultrasonic heating (ultrasonic cleaner, recommended frequency 20-40 kHz), vortexing, etc. to assist dissolution.
    Purity & Documentation

    Purity: 99.96%

    References
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    Help & FAQs
    • Do most proteins show cross-species activity?

      Species cross-reactivity must be investigated individually for each product. Many human cytokines will produce a nice response in mouse cell lines, and many mouse proteins will show activity on human cells. Other proteins may have a lower specific activity when used in the opposite species.

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