1. NF-κB
    Immunology/Inflammation
    Membrane Transporter/Ion Channel
    Neuronal Signaling
    Metabolic Enzyme/Protease
  2. NF-κB
    COX
    Calcium Channel
    Cytochrome P450
    Endogenous Metabolite
  3. Ginsenoside Rd

Ginsenoside Rd (Synonyms: Gypenoside VIII)

Cat. No.: HY-N0043 Purity: >98.0%
Handling Instructions

Ginsenoside Rd inhibits TNFα-induced NF-κB transcriptional activity with an IC50 of 12.05±0.82 μM in HepG2 cells. Ginsenoside Rd inhibits expression of COX-2 and iNOS mRNA. Ginsenoside Rd also inhibits Ca2+ influx. Ginsenoside Rd inhibits CYP2D6, CYP1A2, CYP3A4, and CYP2C9, with IC50s of 58.0±4.5 μM, 78.4±5.3 μM, 81.7±2.6 μM, and 85.1±9.1 μM, respectively.

For research use only. We do not sell to patients.

Ginsenoside Rd Chemical Structure

Ginsenoside Rd Chemical Structure

CAS No. : 52705-93-8

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10 mM * 1  mL in DMSO USD 150 In-stock
Estimated Time of Arrival: December 31
5 mg USD 84 In-stock
Estimated Time of Arrival: December 31
10 mg USD 144 In-stock
Estimated Time of Arrival: December 31
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Description

Ginsenoside Rd inhibits TNFα-induced NF-κB transcriptional activity with an IC50 of 12.05±0.82 μM in HepG2 cells. Ginsenoside Rd inhibits expression of COX-2 and iNOS mRNA. Ginsenoside Rd also inhibits Ca2+ influx. Ginsenoside Rd inhibits CYP2D6, CYP1A2, CYP3A4, and CYP2C9, with IC50s of 58.0±4.5 μM, 78.4±5.3 μM, 81.7±2.6 μM, and 85.1±9.1 μM, respectively.

IC50 & Target

NF-κB

12.05 μM (IC50, in HepG2 cells)

COX-2

 

L-type calcium channel

 

CYP2D6

58 μM (IC50)

CYP1A2

78.4 μM (IC50)

CYP3A4

81.7 μM (IC50)

CYP2C9

85.1 μM (IC50)

Human Endogenous Metabolite

 

In Vitro

Ginsenoside Rd is one of the most abundant ingredients of Panax ginseng. Ginsenoside Rd significantly inhibits TNF-α-induced NF-κB transcriptional activity with an IC50 of 12.05±0.82 in HepG2 cells. Ginsenoside Rd also inhibits expression of COX-2 and iNOS mRNA and iNOS promoter activity in a dose-dependent manner. To determine nontoxic concentrations, HepG2 cells are treated with various concentrations (0.1, 1, and 10 μM) of compounds (e.g., Ginsenoside Rd) and cell viability is measured using an MTS assay. No compounds are significantly cytotoxic at up to 10 μM, indicating that NF-κB inhibition is not due to cell toxicity[1]. Ginsenoside Rd is one of the most abundant ingredients of Panax ginseng, protects the heart via multiple mechanisms including the inhibition of Ca2+ influx. Ginsenoside Rd reduces ICa,L peak amplitude in a concentration-dependent manner (IC50=32.4±7.1 μM)[2]. Ginsenoside Rd exhibits an inhibition against the activity of CYP2D6 in human liver microsomes with an IC50 of 58.0±4.5 μM, a weak inhibition against the activity of CYP1A2, CYP3A4, and CYP2C9 in human liver microsomes with IC50s of 78.4±5.3, 81.7±2.6, and 85.1±9.1, respectively, and an even weaker inhibition against the activity of CYP2A6 in human liver microsomes with an IC50 value of more than 100 μM[4].

In Vivo

Ginsenosides Rd is a major compound isolated from Gynostemma pentaphyllum that holistically improves gut microenvironment and induces anti-polyposis in ApcMin/+ mice. Six-weeks-old mice are subjected to Ginsenoside Rd treatment, before the appearance of the intestinal polyps. All the mice are monitored for food intake, water consumption, and weight changes. Throughout the experiment, no Rb3/ Ginsenoside Rd-associated weight loss in mice is observed. In addition, none of the treated mice show variations in food and water consumption. Whereas, the number and size of the polyps are effectively reduced by Ginsenoside Rd treatments[3].

Molecular Weight

947.15

Formula

C₄₈H₈₂O₁₈

CAS No.

52705-93-8

SMILES
Shipping

Room temperature in continental US; may vary elsewhere.

Storage

Please store the product under the recommended conditions in the Certificate of Analysis.

Solvent & Solubility
In Vitro: 

DMSO : ≥ 100 mg/mL (105.58 mM)

*"≥" means soluble, but saturation unknown.

Preparing
Stock Solutions
Concentration Solvent Mass 1 mg 5 mg 10 mg
1 mM 1.0558 mL 5.2790 mL 10.5580 mL
5 mM 0.2112 mL 1.0558 mL 2.1116 mL
10 mM 0.1056 mL 0.5279 mL 1.0558 mL
*Please refer to the solubility information to select the appropriate solvent.
In Vivo:
  • 1.

    Add each solvent one by one:  10% DMSO    40% PEG300    5% Tween-80    45% saline

    Solubility: ≥ 2.5 mg/mL (2.64 mM); Clear solution

  • 2.

    Add each solvent one by one:  10% DMSO    90% (20% SBE-β-CD in saline)

    Solubility: ≥ 2.5 mg/mL (2.64 mM); Clear solution

  • 3.

    Add each solvent one by one:  10% DMSO    90% corn oil

    Solubility: ≥ 2.5 mg/mL (2.64 mM); Clear solution

*All of the co-solvents are provided by MCE.
References
Cell Assay
[1]

An MTS assay is used to analyze the effects of the compounds on cell viability. HepG2 cells are cultured overnight in a 96-well plate (1×104 cells/well). Cell viability is assessed after adding the compounds (e.g., Ginsenoside Rd; 0.1, 1, and 10 μM) for 24 h. The number of viable cells is determined by the A490nm of the dissolved formazan product, after addition of MTS for 30 min[1].

MCE has not independently confirmed the accuracy of these methods. They are for reference only.

Animal Administration
[3]

Mice[3]
Heterozygous male ApcMin/+ (C57BL/6J-ApcMin/+) mice are used. Total 32 male ApcMin/+ mice (aged 6 weeks) are divided into three groups; 10 mice in the control group and 22 mice equally divided for Rb3 and Rd treatments. The mice are daily gavage with a single dose of Ginsenoside Rb3 or Ginsenoside Rd at 20 mg/kg, or solvent control. The treatments are carried out for 8 consecutive weeks.

MCE has not independently confirmed the accuracy of these methods. They are for reference only.

References
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Keywords:

Ginsenoside RdGypenoside VIIINF-κBCOXCalcium ChannelCytochrome P450Endogenous MetaboliteNuclear factor-κBNuclear factor-kappaBCyclooxygenaseCa2+ channelsCa channelsCYPsInhibitorinhibitorinhibit

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