1. Signaling Pathways
  2. GPCR/G Protein
  3. G Protein-coupled Receptor Kinase (GRK)

G Protein-coupled Receptor Kinase (GRK)

G protein-coupled receptor kinases (GRKs) are a family of serine/threonine kinases that phosphorylate agonist-bound, or activated, G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) as their primary substrates. On the basis of their sequence homology, GRKs can be subclassified into three groups: the visual subfamily (GRK1 and GRK7), the GRK4 subfamily (GRK4, GRK5 and GRK6) and the β-AR kinase (βARK) subfamily (GRK2 and GRK3). GRK1 and GRK7 are primarily expressed in retinal photoreceptor cells, whereas GRK4 is most abundantly expressed in the testes. GRK2, GRK3 and GRK5 are ubiquitously expressed, albeit to various extents in different tissues. In the heart, GRK2 and GRK5 are most prominent, whereas GRK3 and GRK6 are expressed at low levels. Functionally, all GRKs mediate the uncoupling and internalization of activated GPCRs. All GRKs are primarily localized to the cytosol and plasma membrane. GRK1, GRK4, GRK5, GRK6 and GRK7 are basally localized to the membrane. Conversely, GRK2 and GRK3 are primarily localized to the cytosol and translocate to the membrane after receptor stimulation.

G Protein-coupled Receptor Kinase (GRK) Related Products (9):

Cat. No. Product Name Effect Purity
  • HY-109562A
    CCG258208 hydrochloride
    98.76%
    CCG258208 (GRK2-IN-1) hydrochloride is a potent and selective GRK2 (G protein-coupled receptor kinase 2) inhibitor (IC50=30 nM) while maintaining 230-fold selectivity over GRK5 (IC50=7.09 μM) and more than 2500-fold selectivity over GRK1 (IC50=87.3 μM), PKA, and ROCK1. CCG258208 hydrochloride can be used in heart failure research.
  • HY-P1396A
    GRK2i TFA
    Inhibitor 98.13%
    GRK2i TFA is a GRK2 inhibitory polypeptide that specifically inhibits Gβγ activation of GRK2. GRK2i TFA corresponds to the Gβγ-binding domain and acts as a cellular Gβγ antagonist.
  • HY-47573
    CCG-273220
    Inhibitor
    CCG-273220 is a covalent inhibitor of G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) kinase 5 (GRK5) with an IC50 value of 220 nM. CCG-273220 is highly selective to GRK5 over GRK2 (IC50=350 μM) by binding Cys474, a GRK5 subfamily-specific residue, as a covalent handle.
  • HY-143248
    KR-39038
    Inhibitor 98.65%
    KR-39038 is an orally active and potent GRK5 (G protein-coupled receptor kinase 5) inhibitor, with an IC50 of 0.02 μM. KR-39038 significantly inhibits angiotensin II-induced cellular hypertrophy through suppression of HDAC5 pathway in neonatal cardiomyocytes. KR-39038 shows profound anti-hypertrophic effects and improved cardiac function. KR-39038 can be used for heart failure research.
  • HY-109562
    CCG258208
    CCG258208 (GRK2-IN-1) is a potent and selective GRK2 (G protein-coupled receptor kinase 2) inhibitor (IC50=30 nM) while maintaining 230-fold selectivity over GRK5 (IC50=7.09 μM) and more than 2500-fold selectivity over GRK1 (IC50=87.3 μM), PKA, and ROCK1. CCG258208 can be used in heart failure research.
  • HY-150039
    CCG-271423
    Inhibitor
    CCG-271423 is a potent and selective GRK5 inhibitor with IC50 values of 0.0021 μM and 44 μM for GRK5 and GRK2, respectively. CCG-271423 inhibits cardiomyocyte contractility and decreases in Ca2+ transience.
  • HY-150022
    GRK5-IN-4
    Inhibitor
    GRK5-IN-4 (Compound 16d, CCG-265328) is a potent and and selective covalent GRK5 (G protein-coupled receptor kinase 5) inhibitor, with an IC50 of 1.1 μM. GRK5-IN-4 shows 90-fold selectivity over GRK2. GRK5-IN-4 can be used for heart failure research.
  • HY-150040
    CCG-273463
    Inhibitor
    CCG-273463 is a potent, selective and covalent GRK5 inhibitor with an IC50 value of 8.6 nM. CCG-273463 can be used in the research of heart failure, hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, and cancer.
  • HY-150021
    GRK5-IN-3
    Inhibitor
    GRK5-IN-3 is a covalent inhibitor of GRK5 (G Protein-Coupled Receptor Kinase 5). GRK5-IN-3 shows potent inhibitory effect to GRK5 and GRK6 with IC50s of 0.22 μM and 0.41 μM, respectively.